26 January 2010

Modern cement built heritage (2009)


Title: Multi-pollutants impact on modern cement built heritage
Author: Izabela Joanna Ozga
University: University of Bologna (Italy)
Year: 2009
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/... (pdf, 10 Mb)


Abstract:
It is well known that the deposition of gaseous pollutants and aerosols plays a major role in causing the deterioration of monuments and built cultural heritage in European cities. Despite of many studies dedicated to the environmental damage of cultural heritage, in case of cement mortars, commonly used in the 20th century architecture, the deterioration due to air multipollutants impact, especially the formation of black crusts, is still not well explored making this issue a challenging area of research. This work centers on cement mortars – environment interactions, focusing on the diagnosis of the damage on the modern built heritage due to air multi-pollutants. For this purpose three sites, exposed to different urban areas in Europe, were selected for sampling and subsequent laboratory analyses: Centennial Hall, Wroclaw (Poland), Chiesa dell'Autostrada del Sole, Florence (Italy), Casa Galleria Vichi, Florence (Italy). The sampling sessions were performed taking into account the height from the ground level and protection from rain run off (sheltered, partly sheltered and exposed areas). The complete characterization of collected damage layer and underlying materials was performed using a range of analytical techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy, X ray diffractometry, differential and gravimetric thermal analysis, ion chromatography, flash combustion/gas chromatographic analysis, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. The data were elaborated using statistical methods (i.e. principal components analyses) and enrichment factor for cement mortars was calculated for the first time. The results obtained from the experimental activity performed on the damage layers indicate that gypsum, due to the deposition of atmospheric sulphur compounds, is the main damage product at surfaces sheltered from rain run-off at Centennial Hall and Casa Galleria Vichi. By contrast, gypsum has not been identified in the samples collected at Chiesa dell'Autostrada del Sole. This is connected to the restoration works, particularly surface cleaning, regularly performed for the maintenance of the building. Moreover, the results obtained demonstrated the correlation between the location of the building and the composition of the damage layer: Centennial Hall is mainly undergoing to the impact of pollutants emitted from the close coal power stations, whilst Casa Galleria Vichi is principally affected by pollutants from vehicular exhaust in front of the building.


Table of contents (compact version):

Introduction

1. Impact of multi-pollutants on modern cement built heritage
1.1. Cement mortars
1.2. Impact of air pollutants on cement mortars

2. Presentation of the selected sites
2.1. Centennial Hall, Wroclaw (Poland)
2.2. Chiesa dell'Autostrada del Sole, Florence (Italy)
2.3. Casa Galleria Vichi, Florence (Italy)

3. Experimental work
3.1. Sampling
3.2. Analytical techniques

4. Results and discussion
4.1. Experimental data of Centennial Hall
4.2. Experimental data of Chiesa dell'Autostrada del Sole
4.3. Experimental data of Casa Galleria Vichi

Conclusion
References

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