13 February 2010

Museum Data Exchange (2010)

Title: Museum Data Exchange: Learning How to Share
Author: Günter Waibel, Ralph LeVan and Bruce Washburn
Publisher: OCLC Research

Year: 2010
Download: http://www.oclc.org/... (pdf, 2 Mb)
Link: http://www.oclc.org/...

This report describes the outcomes of a project funded by a grant from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to further develop standards for museum data exchange.
OCLC Research and nine art museums worked together on the Museum Data Exchange project to create tools for data sharing, build a research aggregation of museum records and analyze the aggregation to determine in which areas museums should invest in to upgrade their records, as well as what automated processes could be utilized to harmonize descriptions for retrieval. Their work resulted in the establishment of an infrastructure for standards-based metadata exchange for the museum community and modeled data sharing behavior among participating institutions, details of which are included in the report.

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12 February 2010

Carbonization of peas and wheat (2004)

Title: Carbonization of peas and wheat - a window into the past: a laboratory study
Author: Freek Braadbaart
University: University of Amsterdam
Year: 2004
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://www.amolf.nl/... (pdf)

From the Summary:
In most cases the remains left over from past societies have been hidden in the soil for centuries before being excavated by archaeologists. The properties of the remains themselves, the influence of the biological, physical and chemical conditions of the environment in which the remains have been hidden or the changes of these conditions during the long time between the deposition in the soil and the excavation may have all affected the remains.

Table of contents (short version):

Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Laboratory simulations of the transformation of peas as a result of heat treatment: changes of the physical and chemical properties
Chapter 3. Laboratory simulations of the transformation of peas as a result of heating: the change of the molecular composition by DTMS
Chapter 4. Heating experiments under anoxic conditions on varieties of wheat
Chapter 5. Laboratory simulations of the transformation of emmer wheat as a result of heating
Chapter 6. Digital imaging analysis of size and shape of wheat and pea as a result of heating under anoxic conditions as a function of the temperature
Chapter 7. Propagules exposed to different heating conditions
Chapter 8. Conclusions and implications for archaeology

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The Nature of Conservation (1986)

Title: The Nature of Conservation: A Race Against Time
Editors: Philip Ward
Publisher: The Getty Conservation Institute
Year: 1986
Pages: 40 + 43
Download: Section 1 (pdf, 8.5 Mb), Section 2 (pdf, 11.1 Mb)
Link: http://www.getty.edu/...

También disponible en castellano:
Philip Ward, La conservación del patrimonio: carrera contra reloj, Getty Conservation Institute, Marina del Rey, 1986 (pdf, 9.8 Mb)

Table of contents:

The Nature of Conservation
The Primary Activities of the Conservator
The Role of Science in Conservation
The Training of Conservators
Conservation Services
The Conservator as Museologist
The Future

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09 February 2010

CCI Notes

Title: CCI Notes
Formats available: html and pdf
Link: http://www.cci-icc.gc.ca/...

CCI Notes deal with topics of interest to those who care for cultural objects. Intended for a broad audience, the Notes offer practical advice about issues and questions related to the care, handling, and storage of cultural objects. Many Notes are illustrated, and provide bibliographies as well as suggestions for contacting suppliers. Written by CCI staff, there are currently over 100 Notes in this ever-expanding series.


Care of Collections -- General Guidelines
N1/2 Cleaning Glass and Acrylic Display Cases
N1/3 Closing a Museum for the Winter
N1/4 Making Triwall Containers
N1/5 Applying Registration Numbers to Paintings and Sculptures
N1/6 Time Capsules
N1/7 Mercury in Museum Collections

Preventive Conservation
N2/1 Ultraviolet Filters
N2/3 Track Lighting
N2/6 Fire Protection Issues for Historic Buildings
N2/7 Museum Fires and Losses
N2/8 Automatic Sprinkler Systems for Museums

The Museum Environment: Biological Factors
N3/1 Preventing Infestations: Control Strategies and Detection Methods
N3/2 Detecting Infestations: Facility Inspection Procedure and Checklist
N3/3 Controlling Insect Pests with Low Temperature
N3/4 Psocids or "Book Lice": a Warning of Dampness

Archaeological and Field Conservation
N4/1 Identifying Archaeological Metal
N4/2 Vacuum Freeze-drying Archaeological Artifacts
N4/3 Conservation of Wet Faunal Remains: Bone, Antler, and Ivory

Ceramics and Glass
N5/1 Care of Ceramics and Glass (1997)

Ethnographic Materials
N6/1 Care of Ivory, Bone, Horn and Antler (1988)
N6/2 Care of Basketry (1988)
N6/3 Care of Canoes, Kayaks and Umiaks (1989)
N6/4 Care of Objects Decorated with Glass Beads (1994)
N6/5 Care of Quillwork (1991)
N6/7 Totem Poles Displayed Indoors (2002)
N6/8 Totem Poles Displayed Outside (2002)

Furniture and Wooden Objects
N7/1 Care and Cleaning of Unfinished Wood (2002)
N7/2 Care of Furniture Finishes (2002)

Leather, Skin, and Fur
N8/1 Removing Mould from Leather (1993)
N8/2 Care of Alum, Vegetable, and Mineral Tanned Leather (1992)
N8/3 Care of Mounted Specimens and Pelts (1988)
N8/4 Care of Rawhide and Semi-Tanned Leather (1992)

N9/1 Recognizing Active Corrosion (1997)
N9/2 Storage of Metals (1995)
N9/3 The Cleaning, Polishing and Protective Waxing of Brass and Copper (1988)
N9/4 Basic Care of Coins, Medals and Medallic Art (1997)
N9/5 Tannic Acid Treatment (1997)
N9/6 Care and Cleaning of Iron (1995)
N9/7 Silver – Care and Tarnish Removal (1997)
N9/8 Mechanical Removal of Rust from Machined Ferrous Surfaces (1996)
N9/9 Care of Objects Made of Zinc (2002)

Paintings and Polychrome Sculptures
N10/1 Cleaning Paintings: Precautions (1995)
N10/10 Backing Boards for Paintings on Canvas (1993)
N10/11 Condition Reporting - Paintings. Part III: Glossary of Terms (1994)
N10/12 Removing a Painting from its Frame (1993)
N10/13 Basic Handling of Paintings (1993)
N10/14 Care of Paintings on Ivory, Metal, and Glass (1993)
N10/15 Paintings: Considerations Prior to Travel (1993)
N10/16 Wrapping a Painting (1998)
N10/17 Know Your Paintings-Structure, Materials, and Aspects of Deterioration (2002)
N10/2 Making Padded Blocks (1995)
N10/3 Storage and Display Guidelines for Paintings (1993)
N10/4 Environmental and Display Guidelines for Paintings (1993)
N10/5 Emergency Treatment of Water-Damaged Paintings on Canvas (1997)
N10/6 Condition Reporting - Paintings. Part I: Introduction (1993)
N10/7 Condition Reporting - Paintings. Part II: Examination Techniques and a Checklist (1993)
N10/8 Framing a Painting (1993)
N10/9 Keying Out of Paintings (1993)

Paper and Books
N11/1 Making Protective Enclosures for Books and Paper Artifacts (1996)
N11/10 Encapsulation (1995)
N11/2 Storing Works on Paper (1995)
N11/3 Glazing Materials for Framing Works on Paper (1996)
N11/4 Wheat Starch Paste (1993)
N11/5 Matting Works on Paper (1997)
N11/6 Removing Paper Artifacts from Their Frames (1993)
N11/7 Basic Care of Books (1995)
N11/8 Display Methods for Books (1994)
N11/9 Framing Works of Art on Paper (1995)

Stone and Plaster
N12/1 Care of Argillite (1992)
N12/2 Care of Objects Made of Plaster of Paris (2002)

Textiles and Fibres
N13/1 Textiles and the Environment (1992)
N13/10 Stitches Used in Textile Conservation (1995)
N13/11 Natural Fibres (1996)
N13/12 Storage for Costume Accessories (1994)
N13/13 Commercial Dry Cleaning of Museum Textiles (1995)
N13/14 Testing for Colourfastness (1996)
N13/15 Mould Growth on Textiles (1996)
N13/2 Flat Storage for Textiles (1993)
N13/3 Rolled Storage for Textiles (1993)
N13/4 Velcro Support System for Textiles (1996)
N13/5 Hanging Storage for Costumes (1994)
N13/6 Mounting Small, Light, Flat Textiles (1995)
N13/7 Washing Non-coloured Textiles (1993)
N13/8 Applying Accession Numbers to Textiles (1994)
N13/9 Anionic Detergent (1992)

Planning for Disaster Management
N14/1 Emergency Preparedness for Cultural Institutions: Introduction (1995)
N14/2 Emergency Preparedness for Cultural Institutions: Identifying and Reducing Hazards (1995)

Modern Materials and Industrial Collections
N15/1 Care of Objects Made from Rubber and Plastic (1997)
N15/2 Care of Machinery Artifacts Displayed or Stored Outside (1993)
N15/3 Display and Storage of Museum Objects Containing Cellulose Nitrate (1994)
N15/4 Indoor Display of Industrial Collections (1998)
N15/5 Lubrication for Industrial Collections (2002)
N15/6 Trade Literature for Industrial Collections (2002)
N15/7 Rubber Components in Industrial Collections (2002)

Care of Photographic Materials
N16/1 Care of Encased Photographic Images (1995)
N16/2 Care of Black-and-White Photographic Glass Plate Negatives (1995)
N16/3 Care of Black-and-White Photographic Negatives on Film (1996)
N16/4 Care of Black-and-White Photographic Prints (1996)
N16/5 Care of Colour Photographic Materials (1996)
N16/6 Processing Contemporary Black-and-White Photographic Films and Papers (1996)

Spot Tests in Conservation
N17/1 The Beilstein Test: Screening Organic and Polymeric Materials for the Presence of Chlorine, with Examples of Products Tested (1993)
N17/2 The Diphenylamine Spot Test for Cellulose Nitrate in Museum Objects (1994)

Conservation Equipment
N18/3 Construction of a "Soft" Profile Gauge (1997)

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Molecular studies of asphalt, mummy and Kassel earth pigments (2004)

Title: Molecular studies of asphalt, mummy and Kassel earth pigments : their characterisation, identification and effect on the drying of traditional oil paint
Author: Georgiana M. Languri
University: University of Amsterdam
Year: 2004
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://www.amolf.nl/... (pdf)
New link:

From the Summary:
The organic black and brown pigments, asphalt, mummy and Kassel earth, are often used or claimed to have been used by painters in the 19th century. In particular paintings from the 19th century show paint defects that can be associated with these pigments. Examples of poor drying of the oil are observed as formation of premature cracks and phenomena, such as migration or sinking-in of layers. These phenomena are already reported in the contemporary literature, but they are also reported nowadays by conservators and restorers investigating 19th-century paintings. With all the indications about the negative influence of asphalt, Kassel earth and mummy pigments on the condition and aesthetic quality of the paintings, surprisingly little or no molecular evidence is so far available. What exactly are these pigments? Is it possible to identify them in painting samples? Are they the reason why the oil binding media dries so poorly? These are questions addressed in this dissertation.

Table of Contents (short version):

1. General introduction
2. Asphalt: Characterisation of molecular markers and biomarkers in the 19th-century Hafkenscheid asphalt pigment
3. Mummy: Characterisation of molecular markers and biomarkers in the 19th-century Hafkenscheid mummy pigment
4. Kassel earth: Characterisation of molecular markers and biomarkers in a series of Kassel earth pigments
5. On poorly drying 19th-century oil paints: reference, materials, model systems and paintings
Annex A. Mass Spectrometry as a micro-analytical method to study Kassel earth (Vandyke brown) pigments in oil paint
Annex B. Monitoring the effects of traditional 19th-century additives on the chemical drying of oil paint by Mass Spectrometry

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Analytical chemical studies on traditional linseed oil paints (2002)

Title: Analytical chemical studies on traditional linseed oil paints
Author: Jorrit Dirk Jan van den Berg
University: University of Amsterdam
Year: 2002
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://www.amolf.nl/... (pdf)

From the Summary:
This thesis contributes to the determination and understanding of the internal chemistry of oil paint systems at the different stages in their lifetime. [...] The main idea put forward and explored further in this thesis is the transition from a cross-linked network of triacylglycerols to a metal bound ionomeric network resulting from hydrolysis of the glycerol ester bonds and the interaction with pigments. The work described in this thesis focuses on analytical chemical investigations of oil paint systems and the information that can be obtained from these studies in relation to a model of an ageing oil paint.

Table of Contents (short version):

1. General Introduction
1.1 Paints and painting
1.2 Drying oil paints
1.3 Degradation of linseed oil paint
1.4 Analytical chemical research on linseed oil paints
1.5 Scope of the thesis

2. Oil paint: developmental stages from an oil to a hard dry film
2.1 Production of linseed oil
2.2 The composition of linseed oil
2.3 Refining and heat processing of linseed oil
2.4 Autoxidation
2.5 Photoxidation
2.6 Condensation reactions
2.7 Formation of low molecular material
2.8 Heat-induced chemical changes in drying oils
2.9 Oil paint
2.10 Summary and relevance for paintings

3. The effect of traditional processing methods of linseed oil on the composition of its triacylglycerols
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Analytical techniques
3.1.2 Experimental design
3.2 Materials and methods
3.3 Results
3.4 Discussion
3.5 Conclusion

4. Direct temperature resolved mass spectrometry of oil paint constituents and aged oil paints
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Experimental
4.3 Results
4.4 Discussion
4.5 Conclusion

5a. Identification of non-cross-linked compounds in methanolic extracts of cured and aged linseed oil based paint films using GC/MS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Experimental
5.3 Results/Discussion
5.4 Conclusion

5b. Unwanted alkylation during direct methylation of fatty (di)acids using tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide reagent in a Curie-point pyrolysis unit
5.5 Introduction
5.6 Experimental
5.7 Results and discussion
5.8 Conclusion

6. Determination of the degree of hydrolysis of oil paint samples using a two-step derivatisation method and on-column GC/MS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Experimental
6.3 Results and discussion
6.4 Conclusions

7. Studies on the composition and formation of bloom on primed canvas used by F. E. Church and on paints in works of art by F. Stella
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Materials and methods
7.3 Results Case I
7.4. Results Case II: Bloom on paintings by Frank Stella