30 January 2010

Methods in Paleontology (2009)

Title: Methods in Paleontology: Proceedings of the First Annual Fossil Preparation and Collections Symposium
Editor: M.A. Brown, J.F. Kane, and W. G. Parker
Year: 2009
Files: Articles in PDF
Link: http://fossilprep.org/...
Abstracts: http://fossilprep.org/... (pdf)

Table of contents:

Preparation In Action: Paleontological Skill And The Role Of The Fossil Preparator, Caitlin Wylie
Working Fossil Laboratories As Public Exhibitions, Annette Gavigan
Dinosaurs, Museums, And The Modernization Of American Fossil Preparation At The Turn Of The 20th Century, Paul Brinkman
Fossil Preparation Test: An Indication Of Manual Skills, Lisa Bergwall
Micropreparation: One Sand Grain At A Time, Jean Pierre Cavigelli
An Introduction to Solution and Reaction Adhesives For Fossil Preparation, Amy Davidson and Samantha Alderson
Rotten Wood In Sand: Difficult Preparation Of A Large Theropod, Anthony Maltese
Histological Core Drilling: A Less Destructive Method For Studying Bone Histology, Koen Stein and Martin Sander
Creating a Multi-Use Polyurethane Mold With a Replaceable Pour Spout, Michael Cherney
The Use of Linear Collapsible Foam for Molding Ichnofossils in the Field, Thomas Nolan, Rob Atkinson, and Bryan Small
Inexpensive and Simple Construction of a Manual Centrifuge For Resin Casting, Daniel Erickson
Packing Methods For Domestic and International Fossil Shipping, Rebecca Hunt-Foster
Rapid In-House Design, Construction And Installation of a Triassic Paleontology Exhibit Hall at Petrified Forest National Park, Matthew Brown and William Parker
A Report on a Mini-Seminar on Adhesives for Fossil Preparation, Amy Davidson

29 January 2010

Protection juridique du patrimoine culturel immobilier (2009)

Title: Protection juridique du patrimoine culturel immobilier: orientations pour les pays francophones de l'Afrique Subsaharienne
Editor: Bakonirina Rakotomamonjy
Publisher: ICCROM
Year: 2009
Link: http://www.iccrom.org/... (pdf, 3.8 Mb)

Table of contents (compact version):

1. Le patrimoine culturel immobilier africain et sa protection
I. Les caractères du patrimoine en afrique
II. La protection du patrimoine en afrique

2. La construction des systèmes juridiques de protection
I. La reconnaissance du patrimoine
II. Les inventaires
III. Les motifs de la protection
IV. La protection patrimoniale
V. La protection des sites archéologiques
VI. La dimension urbanistique et environnementale de la protection

3. Les institutions en charge de la protection
I. Les institutions dirigées par l’Etat
II. Les autorités locales et décentralisées
III. L’élargissement du cercle des responsabilités

4. Eléments pour une protection effective
I. L’adoption d’une législation qui répond aux besoins de la société
II. L’octroi de moyens aux institutions pour assumer leurs responsabilités
III. Le territoire comme unité d’action

Annexe 1: Charte culturelle de l’Afrique
Annexe 2: Convention africaine sur la conservation de la nature et des ressources naturelles
Annexe 3: Charte africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples
Annexe 4: Convention pour la protection du patrimoine mondial, culturel et naturel
Annexe 5: Convention pour la sauvegarde du patrimoine culturel immatériel
Annexe 6: Déclaration universelle sur la diversité culturelle
Annexe 7: Convention sur la protection et la promotion de la diversité des expressions culturelles
Annexe 8: Déclaration sur la conservation des paysages urbains historiques
Annexe 9: Charte du tourisme culturel
Annexe 10: Procès verbal de palabre, Loropéni, Burkina Faso
Annexe 11: Règlement d’urbanisme de la zone tampon de protection du tombeau des Askia à Gao, Mali
Annexe 12: Fiche d’inventaire à géométrie variable
Annexe 13: Conventions, chartes et déclarations de référence

Protecting Immovable Heritage in sub-Saharan Africa (2009)

Title: Cultural Heritage and the law: Protecting Immovable Heritage in English-Speaking Countries of sub-Saharan Africa
Editor: Webber Ndoro, Albert Mumma and George Abungu
Publisher: ICCROM
Year: 2009
Link: http://www.iccrom.org/... (pdf, 5.4 Mb)

Table of contents:

1. Challenges of heritage management in Africa
2. Introduction to heritage in Africa
3. Introduction to international conventions and chartes on inmovable cultural heritage
4. Legal definitions of heritage
5. the ranking of heritage resources and sites in legislation
6. Administrative arrangements for heritage resources management in sub-Saharan Africa
7. Manegement mechanisms in heritage legislation
8. Powers and obligations in heritage legislation
9. Implementations and enforcement of heritage laws
10. Legal provisions on financial and human resources for heritage conservation
11. Framework for legislation on immovable cultural heritage in Africa
12. Heritage Policy and law-making processes
Appendix 1. Heritage laws in sub-Saharan Africa
Appendix 2. Glossary and definitions
Appendix 3. Charters and conventions

26 January 2010

Materials and techniques used in Hungarian Roman sites (2009)

Title: Study of the building and decorative materials and techniques used in Hungarian Roman sites
Author: Anna Ruggeri
University: University of Bologna (Italy)
Year: 2009
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/... (pdf, 10.9 Mb)

The aims of this research were: - To identify the characteristics, properties and provenance of the building and decorative material found in three Hungarian Roman sites: Nagyharsány, Nemesvámos-Balácapuszta and Aquincum - To provide a database of information on the different sites - To have an overview of main conservation strategies applied in Hungary. Geological studies, macroscopical and microscopical observations, XRD investigations, physical and chemical analyses allowed us to define the characteristics and properties of the different kinds of collected materials. Building stones sampled from Nagyharsány site showed two different kinds of massive limestone belonging to the areas surrounding the villa. Also Building stones sampled from Nemesvámos-Balácapuszta Roman villa proved to be compatible with limestone belonging to local sources. Mural painting fragments show that all samples are units composed of multilayered structures. Mosaic tesserae can be classified as following: -Pale yellow , blackish and pink tesserae are comparable with local limestone; -White tessera, composed of marble, was probably imported from distant regions of the Empire, as the usual practice of Romans. Mortars present different characteristics according to the age, the site and the functions: -Building mortars are generally lime based, white or pale yellow in colour, present a high percentage of aggregates represented by fine sand; -Supporting mortars from both mosaics and mural paintings are reddish or pinkish in colour, due to the presence of high percentage of brick dust and tiles fragments, and present a higher content of MgO. Although the condition of the sites, there is an insignificant content of soluble salts. Database The whole study has allowed us to provide work sheets for each samples, including all characteristics and properties. Furthermore, all sites included in the frame of the research have been described and illustrated on the base of their floor plans, material and construction methodologies. It can be concluded that: 1. In Nagyharsány Archaeological site, it is possible to define a sequence of different construction phases on the base of the study of building material and mortars. The results are comparable with the chronology of the site provided by the archaeologists 2. The material used for construction was of local origin while the more precious ones, used for decorative elements, were probably imported from long distance 3. Construction techniques in Hungary mainly refer to the usual Roman knowledge and practice (Vitruvius); few differences have been found 4. The database will represent an archive for Archaeologists, Historians and Conservators dealing with Roman period in Hungary.

Table of contents:

1.The research project
2. Introduction
3. Material and Methods
4. Results
5. An attempt of comparison between Hungarian and Greek Roman sites: the Galerius Palace of Thessaloniki and Dion Archaeological site
6. Conservation in Hungary: an overview of main strategies
7. Discussion
8. Conclusions
9. Bibliography
10. Other bibliographic sources

Durability of monumental stones (2009)

Title: Durability of monumental stones treated with siloxane-based water repellents
Author: Ana Bogdana Simionescu
University: University of Bologna (Italy)
Year: 2009
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/... (pdf, 76 Mb)

The thesis investigates the effect of siloxane-based water repellents on the durability of monumental stones. Laspra, a micritic limestone typical for the Spanish region of Asturias, and Repedea, an oolitic limestone from Moldavia, Romania were selected for the present study, due to their regional / national significance and level of usage. As for the siloxane-based water repellents, three worldwide used products, namely Lotexan-N, Silres® BS 290 and Tegosivin HL 100 and a newly synthesized nanocomposite material, TMSPMA, obtained starting from the 3(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate as a precursor were investigated. The limestones and the water repellents were thoroughly characterized using specific techniques. The coating of the two monumental stones with the mentioned products and the investigation of coating efficiency yielded to the conclusion that all treatments induce good water repellent properties. The treated limestones were afterwards submitted to different artificially accelerated ageing tests – resistance against UV irradiation, resistance to salt mist action and resistance to SO2 action in the presence of humidity –, the results being analyzed according to standardized evaluation methods. The durability of the treated stones was proved to depend on both stone characteristics and water repellent chemical structure. All four water repellents induced a good protection against UV irradiation, no significant differences among them being noticed. As far as the resistance to salt mist action is concerned, the product that afforded the best results when applied on Laspra was TMSPMA, and on Repedea, Silres® BS 290 or / and TMSPMA showed the highest efficiency. The best resistance to SO2 action in the presence of humidity was conferred by Tegosivin HL 100 and TMSPMA when applied on Laspra, while Silres® BS 290 and TMSPMA afforded better results in the case of Repedea.

Table of contents (compact version):

I. Introduction. State of the art
II. Objectives

III. Methods
III.1. Microscopic and instrumental techniques
III.2. Chemical composition
III.3. Determination of the velocity of propagation of ultrasonic waves
III.4. Pore space structure
III.5. Hydraulic properties
III.6. Color measurements
III.7. Chemical characterization of water repellent treatments as liquids and films
III.8. Thermal stability and properties of water repellent treatments
III.9. Swelling and solubility test of the polymeric films
III.10. Contact angle measurements
III.11. Artificially accelerated ageing tests

IV. Stones selection and sampling
IV.1. Laspra
IV.2. Repedea

V. Stones characterization
V.1. Introduction
V.2. Macro and micro observation
V.3. Chemical composition
V.4. Velocity of propagation of the ultrasonic waves
V.5. Pore space structure
V.6. Hydraulic properties
V.7. Color measurements

VI. Water repellent treatments
VI.1. Introduction
VI.2. Characterization of three selected worldwide used water repellent products (Lotexan-N, Silres® BS 290, Tegosivin HL 100)
VI.3. Synthesis and characterization of a new water repellent product
VI.4. Conclusions

VII. Treated stones characterization
VII.1. Introduction
VII.2. Characterization of the treated stones
VII.3. Conclusions

VIII. Artificially accelerated ageing
VIII.1. Introduction
VIII.2. Artificially accelerated ageing under UV irradiation
VIII.3. Resistance to salt mist action 192 iv
VIII.4. Resistance to SO2 action in the presence of humidity 212

IX. Conclusions
X. Annex 1, Annex 2
XI. Acknowledgements
XII. References

Modern cement built heritage (2009)

Title: Multi-pollutants impact on modern cement built heritage
Author: Izabela Joanna Ozga
University: University of Bologna (Italy)
Year: 2009
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/... (pdf, 10 Mb)

It is well known that the deposition of gaseous pollutants and aerosols plays a major role in causing the deterioration of monuments and built cultural heritage in European cities. Despite of many studies dedicated to the environmental damage of cultural heritage, in case of cement mortars, commonly used in the 20th century architecture, the deterioration due to air multipollutants impact, especially the formation of black crusts, is still not well explored making this issue a challenging area of research. This work centers on cement mortars – environment interactions, focusing on the diagnosis of the damage on the modern built heritage due to air multi-pollutants. For this purpose three sites, exposed to different urban areas in Europe, were selected for sampling and subsequent laboratory analyses: Centennial Hall, Wroclaw (Poland), Chiesa dell'Autostrada del Sole, Florence (Italy), Casa Galleria Vichi, Florence (Italy). The sampling sessions were performed taking into account the height from the ground level and protection from rain run off (sheltered, partly sheltered and exposed areas). The complete characterization of collected damage layer and underlying materials was performed using a range of analytical techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy, X ray diffractometry, differential and gravimetric thermal analysis, ion chromatography, flash combustion/gas chromatographic analysis, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. The data were elaborated using statistical methods (i.e. principal components analyses) and enrichment factor for cement mortars was calculated for the first time. The results obtained from the experimental activity performed on the damage layers indicate that gypsum, due to the deposition of atmospheric sulphur compounds, is the main damage product at surfaces sheltered from rain run-off at Centennial Hall and Casa Galleria Vichi. By contrast, gypsum has not been identified in the samples collected at Chiesa dell'Autostrada del Sole. This is connected to the restoration works, particularly surface cleaning, regularly performed for the maintenance of the building. Moreover, the results obtained demonstrated the correlation between the location of the building and the composition of the damage layer: Centennial Hall is mainly undergoing to the impact of pollutants emitted from the close coal power stations, whilst Casa Galleria Vichi is principally affected by pollutants from vehicular exhaust in front of the building.

Table of contents (compact version):


1. Impact of multi-pollutants on modern cement built heritage
1.1. Cement mortars
1.2. Impact of air pollutants on cement mortars

2. Presentation of the selected sites
2.1. Centennial Hall, Wroclaw (Poland)
2.2. Chiesa dell'Autostrada del Sole, Florence (Italy)
2.3. Casa Galleria Vichi, Florence (Italy)

3. Experimental work
3.1. Sampling
3.2. Analytical techniques

4. Results and discussion
4.1. Experimental data of Centennial Hall
4.2. Experimental data of Chiesa dell'Autostrada del Sole
4.3. Experimental data of Casa Galleria Vichi


Biofilms on exposed monumental stones (2009)

Title: Biofilms on exposed monumental stones: mechanism of formation and development of new control methods
Author: Oana Adriana Cuzman
University: University of Bologna (Italy)
Year: 2009
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/... (pdf, 9.76 Mb)

Within the stone monumental artefacts artistic fountains are extremely favorable to formation of biofilms, giving rise to biodegradation processes related with physical-chemical and visual aspect alterations, because of their particular exposure conditions. Microbial diversity of five fountains (two from Spain and three from Italy) was investigated. It was observed an ample similarity between the biodiversity of monumental stones reported in literature and that one found in studied fountains. Mechanical procedures and toxic chemical products are usually employed to remove such phototrophic patinas. Alternative methods based on natural antifouling substances are recently experimented in the marine sector, due to their very low environmental impact and for the bio settlement prevention on partially immersed structures of ships. In the present work groups of antibiofouling agents (ABAs) were selected from literature for their ability to interfere, at molecular level, with the microbial communication system “quorum sensing”, inhibiting the initial phase of biofilm formation. The efficacy of some natural antibiofoulants agents (ABAs) with terrestrial (Capsaicine - CS, Cinnamaldehyde - CI) and marine origin (Zosteric Acid - ZA, poly-Alkyl Pyridinium Salts – pAPS and Ceramium botryocarpum extract - CBE), incorporated into two commercial coatings (Silres BS OH 100 - S and Wacker Silres BS 290 - W) commonly used in stone conservation procedures were evaluated. The formation of phototrophic biofilms in laboratory conditions (on Carrara marble specimens and Sierra Elvira stone) and on two monumental fountains (Tacca’s Fountain 2 - Florence, Italy and Fountain from Patio de la Lindaraja - Alhambra Palace, Granada, Spain) has been investigated in the presence or absence of these natural antifouling agents. The natural antibiofouling agents, at tested concentrations, demonstrated a certain inhibitory effect. The silane-siloxane based silicone coating (W) mixing with ABAs was more suitable with respect to ethyl silicate coating (S) and proved efficacy against biofilm formation only when incompletely cured. The laboratory results indicated a positive action in inhibiting the patina formation, especially for poly-alkyl pyridinium salts, zosteric acid and cinnamaldehyde, while on site tests revealed a good effect for zosteric acid.

Table of contents (compact version):

I. Research Objectives

II. Introduction
II.1. Biofilms formation and evolution
II.2. Biofilms interaction with the substratum, biodeterioration processes
II.3. Biomolecules and biofilm control

III. Materials and Methods
III.1. Investigated fountains
III.2. Biofilms development
III.3. Study of biofilm composition
III.4. Stone material and color measurements
III.5. Antibiofouling agents, coating preparations and their characterization
III.6. Laboratory experiments
III.7. In situ experiments

IV. Results and Discussions
IV.1. Biofilms on monumental stones
IV.2. Antifouling agents as an alternative method for prevention the biofouling on artistic fountains

V. Conclusions
VI. Acknowledgments
VII. Bibliography

Conserving textiles (2009)

Title: Conserving textiles: Studies in Honour of Ágnes Timár-Balázsy
Editor: István Éri
Publisher: ICCROM
Year: 2009
Download: http://www.iccrom.org/... (pdf, 6.5 Mb)
or in 2 parts: part 1 (pdf, 3.3 Mb), part 2 (pdf, 3.4 Mb)

This compilation of articles honours Ágnes Timár-Balázsy, a renowned teacher of chemistry and the scientific background of textile conservation.

Table of contents:

Conservation of silk finds dating to the Anjou period (1301-1387), Judit B. Perjés, Katalin E. Nagy and Márta Tóth

Excavation of the crypt of the Dominican Church in Vác: preserving coffins, dress and other funerary paraphernalia, 1731-1808, Judit B. Perjés, Emil Ráduly and Mária Újvári

The conservation of two medieval parchment codices, Ildikó Beöthy Kozocsa

Conservation decision-making: from object to collection to community and back again, Dinah Eastop

The image of a crucified man on the Turin Shroud: measures taken for conservation of the legibility of the body image, Mechthild Flury-Lemberg

An eighteenth-century Hungarian court dress with nineteenth-century alterations: an example of historicism in the collections of the Hungarian National Museum, Katalin Dózsa

Dyeing black in seventeenth-century Holland, Judith H. Hofenk De Graaff

Metal thread variations and materials: simple methods of pre-treatment identification for historical textiles, Márta Járó

Article: Towards a new vision of restoration (2009)

Title: Towards a new vision of restoration in the context of global change
Frank Hassard
Journal: Journal of the Institute of Conservation
Publisher: Routledge
Year: 2009
Volume: 32
Issue: 2
Pages: 149-163
DOI: 10.1080/19455220903059842
Download: http://www.informaworld.com/... (pdf, 1 Mb)

There is currently much discussion in the UK around skills and other workforce development issues within the cultural heritage sector. This coincides with wider debate within the international heritage community around the meaning and purpose of heritage preservation in the context of globalisation. Issues around representation, access, ownership and diversity, inclusivity and human rights are today associated with concepts of authenticity, values and democracy in a global setting and embodied today, for example, by the United Nations in the concept of intangible heritage—which refers to aspects of 'living' heritage.
This paper brings to light, through an assessment of key international heritage charters, declarations and political conventions, how changes in attitudes towards the past have lead to the formal re-constitution of the heritage field in recent times. Attention is drawn to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO's) guidelines for safeguarding intangible heritage, our current understanding of authenticity, and the influence this has on the practice of restoration. The paper is intended to inform current discussion on skills and other workforce development issues in and beyond the UK.

Article: traditional Korean books and bookbinding (2009)

Title: The history and characteristics of traditional Korean books and bookbinding
Minah Song
Journal: Journal of the Institute of Conservation
Publisher: Routledge
Year: 2009
Volume: 32
Issue: 1
Pages: 53-78
DOI: 10.1080/19455220802630743
Download: http://www.informaworld.com/... (pdf, 1 Mb)

This research project presents the history and characteristics of traditional Korean books and bookbinding. The article also discusses some aspects of Chinese books and bookbinding that bear a particularly important relation to Korean books and form the origins and development of bookbinding in East Asia. The style of Korean bookbinding had developed under the influence of China, but its uniqueness can be recognised in paper, printing techniques, bookbinding materials and decoration. The Korean scroll constituted the majority of book formats until the twelfth century. Concertina binding had been used extensively for Buddhist texts since the middle of the Goryeo period. Side-stitched binding became the predominant binding style in Korea from the thirteenth century, long before it became popular in China. Paper mulberry was the dominant material for book paper. From the fourteenth century, the most distinctive feature of Korean publishing was the use of movable metal type, coexisting with the earlier woodblock printing. Yellow dyed, embossed, decorative covers and red thread add to the visual characteristics of Korean books.

Article: Furunori (aged wheat starch paste) (2009)

Title: Furunori (aged wheat starch paste): challenges of production in non-traditional settings
Author: Regina Belard, Hisashi Higuchi and Jennifer Perry
Journal: Journal of the Institute of Conservation
Publisher: Routledge
Year: 2009
Volume: 32
Issue: 1
Pages: 31-51
DOI: 10.1080/19455220802630735
Download: http://www.informaworld.com/... (pdf, 618 Kb)

Furunori (aged wheat starch paste) is a traditional adhesive used to bond layers of paper and/or silk in the mounting of Japanese scrolls. It differs from fresh wheat starch paste in texture, consistency, tack and ageing characteristics. Furunori is produced in traditional Japanese mounting studios using the same general process: paste is cooked as for fresh wheat starch paste, placed in large storage jars, covered with a layer of water and stored in a cool environment. For a number of years, conservators in the East Asian Paintings Conservation Studio (EAPCS) at the Freer Gallery of Art, USA, have been trying to make furunori with limited success. This article addresses various adaptations of the process of making furunori in a non-traditional setting. The authors take a brief look at the starting material, wheat starch, and its manufacture in Japan as well as the chemistry of the process by which fresh wheat starch paste is transformed into furunori with long-term storage. A thorough description of the annual process of making furunori in a traditional Japanese mounting studio is also provided. The EAPCS process of making furunori is re-examined in an attempt to elucidate problems that lead to failed furunori. In addition, for comparison, a survey was conducted of other conservation studios located outside Japan that are making furunori.

Article: 3D documentation and virtual restoration (2009)

Title: Three-dimensional documentation and virtual restoration of the Lichfield Angel
Author: Angela Geary and Emily Howe
Journal: Journal of the Institute of Conservation
Publisher: Routledge
Year: 2009
Volume: 32
Issue: 2
Pages: 165 — 179
DOI: 10.1080/19455220903059875
Download: http://www.informaworld.com/... (pdf, 831 Kb)

The Lichfield Angel is a remarkable survival of early medieval sculpture, discovered during the recent excavation of the Cathedral's nave. Dating from around 800AD, the limestone panel is carved with the figure of an archangel, which retains an unprecedented amount of original painted decoration. Given the panel's exceptional importance, a carefully sequenced programme of recording and analysis was commissioned to inform decisions about the Angel's conservation and display.
Close-range three-dimensional laser scanning comprised an essential component of the project's integrated documentation strategy. This paper outlines the scanning process and the image mapping technique used to create high resolution three-dimensional models of the Angel's three fragments. It explores the novel applications for which the scan data was used, including high-resolution three-dimensional digital 'basemaps' onto which conservators could record and interrogate information about the fragments' condition and technique. A final section describes the surface colour reconstruction techniques used to 'virtually' restore the Angel's painted decoration.

25 January 2010

Lime-based restoration mortars (2009)

Title: The effect of linseed oil on the properties of lime-based restoration mortars
Author: Eva Čechová
University: University of Bologna (Italy)
Year: 2009
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/... (pdf, 4.9 Mb)

The traditional lime mortar is composed of hydrated lime, sand and water. Besides these constituents it may also contain additives aiming to modify fresh mortar´s properties and/or to improve hardened mortar´s strength and durability. Already in the first civilizations various additives were used to enhance mortar´s quality, among the organic additives, linseed oil was one of the most common. From literature we know that it was used already in Roman period to reduce water permeability of a mortar, but the mechanism and the technology, e.g. effects of different dosages, are not clearly explained. There are only few works studying the effect of oil experimentally. Knowing the function of oil in historical mortars is important for designing a new compatible repair mortar. Moreover, linseed oil addition could increase the sometimes insufficient durability of lime-based mortars used for reparation and it could be a natural alternative to synthetic additives. [...]

Table of contents (compact version):

1. Introduction

2. Theory
2.1 Definition of Mortar
2.2 Mortar Composition
2.3 Types of Mortar
2.4 Deterioration of Mortars
2.5 Natural Polymers as Mortar Admixtures

3. Experimental Part
3.1. Used Materials
3.2 Experimental Methods

4. Results
4.1. Basic Characteristics of Materials Used
4.2. Setting Time Determination
4.3. Composition and Properties of Fresh Mortars
4.4. Properties of Hardened Mortar
4.5. Observation of Oil in Mortar Strucutre
4.6. Studying of chemical Changes of Oil in mortar and Oil Aging

5. Discussion
5.1. The effect of Linseed Oil on the Properties of Fresh Mortars
5.2. The effect of Linseed Oil on the Properties of Hardened Mortars

6. Conclusions
6.1. The Effect of the Addition of Linseed Oil on Mortars Properties and the Mechanisms of its Operation
6.2. Suggestions for further Research

Chemical-Physical and Structural Characteristics of Panel Painting (2009)

Title: The Effect of Preservative Interventions on the Chemical-Physical and Structural Characteristics of Panel Painting
Author: Mikiko Hayashi
University: University of Bologna (Italy)
Year: 2009
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/... (pdf, 6.45 Mb)

This work studies the impact of two traditional Romanian treatments, Red Petroleum and Propolis, in terms of real efficiency and consequence on the wooden artifacts. The application of these solutions is still a widely adopted and popular technique in preservative conservation but the impact of these solutions is not well known. It is important to know the effect of treatments on chemical-physical and structural characteristics of the artifacts, not only for understanding the influence on present conditions but also for foreseeing the future behavior. These treatments with Romanian traditional products are compared with a commercial antifungal product, Biotin R, which is utilized as reference to control the effectiveness of Red Petroleum and Propolis. Red Petroleum and Propolis are not active against mould while Biotin R is very active. Mould attack is mostly concentrated in the painted layer, where the tempera, containing glue and egg, enhance nutrition availability for moulds. [...]

Table of contents (compact version):

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Need and issues for preservative interventions for panel paintings
1.2 Scope of thesis

Chapter 2: Background
2.1 Panel painting
2.2 Behavior of wood used for support of panel painting
2.3 Treatment of panel painting
2.4 Durability of wood against fungi and insects

Chapter 3: Materials and Methods
3.1 Wood species
3.2 Treatment solutions
3.3 Moisture conditioning
3.4 Insect attack test
3.5 Methods and techniques

Chapter 4: Results and Discussion
4.1 Moisture conditioning
4.2 Insect attack test

Chapter 5: Conclusions
5.1 Conclusions
5.2 Critical assessment for this research and suggestions for future research

Ancient floor mosaics' substrate (2009)

Title: Study of materials and technology of ancient floor mosaics' substrate
Author: Vincenzo Starinieri
University: University of Bologna (Italy)
Year: 2009
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/... (pdf, 4.6 Mb)

Ancient pavements are composed of a variety of preparatory or foundation layers constituting the substrate, and of a layer of tesserae, pebbles or marble slabs forming the surface of the floor. In other cases, the surface consists of a mortar layer beaten and polished. The term mosaic is associated with the presence of tesserae or pebbles, while the more general term pavement is used in all the cases. As past and modern excavations of ancient pavements demonstrated, all pavements do not necessarily display the stratigraphy of the substrate described in the ancient literary sources. In fact, the number and thickness of the preparatory layers, as well as the nature and the properties of their constituent materials, are often varying in pavements which are placed either in different sites or in different buildings within a same site or even in a same building. [...]

Table of contents (compact version):

1. Introduction
1.1. Definition and relevance of the topic
1.2. Objectives of the research
2. Theory
2.1. The mosaics‟ substrate in the ancient treatises
2.2. Modern studies on mosaics‟ substrate
2.3. Mosaic conservation: an overview of the modern practice
2.4. Definition of mortar
2.5. Components of a mortar
2.6. Types of mortar
3. The Case Studies
3.1. Introduction
3.2. The ancient city of Dion
3.3. The “Villa Romana delle Muracche” in Tortoreto
3.4. The archaeological area of St. Severo, Classe
3.5. The “Cortile Romano” in the Archaeological Museum of Florence
3.6. The Palace of Aegae in Vergina
4. Materials and Methods
4.1. In situ analyses and sampling
4.2. Laboratory analyses
5. Results and Discussion
5.1. Results of the analyses
5.2. Discussion
5.3. Practical application of the results
6. Conclusions
6.1. Results of the research
6.2. Suggestions for further work

Physical and mineralogical changes of monumental stones (2009)

Title: Physical and mineralogical changes of Hungarian monumental stones exposed to different conditions: stone-testing in-situ and under laboratory conditions
Author: Magdalini Theodoridou
University: University of Bologna (Italy)
Year: 2009
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/... (pdf, 4.6 Mb)

The Székesfehérvár Ruin Garden is a unique assemblage of monuments belonging to the cultural heritage of Hungary due to its important role in the Middle Ages as the coronation and burial church of the Kings of the Hungarian Christian Kingdom. It has been nominated for “National Monument” and as a consequence, its protection in the present and future is required. Moreover, it was reconstructed and expanded several times throughout Hungarian history. By a quick overview of the current state of the monument, the presence of several lithotypes can be found among the remained building and decorative stones. Therefore, the research related to the materials is crucial not only for the conservation of that specific monument but also for other historic structures in Central Europe. [...]

Table of contents (compact version):
1. Introduction
2. Brief Description of the Hungarian History Focused on the Middle Ages
3. Studied Site
3.1. Introduction
3.2. History and Construction Periods
3.3. Former Investigations
3.4. The Site Today
4. Studied Materials
5. Methods
5.1. In-situ Investigations
5.2. Analyses under Laboratory Conditions
6. Results
6.1. In-situ Investigations
6.2. Analyses under Laboratory Conditions
7. Discussion
8. Conclusions
9. References
10. Acknowledgements

Art of Copper Smithing (1911)

Title: A Practical Treatise of Working Sheet Cooper into All forms
Author: John Fuller
Publisher: David Williams Company
Edition: Fourth, revised
Year: 1911
Formats available: html, txt, DjVu, rtf and xml
Link: http://www.archive.org/...
Note: Thank you to Goran Budija for pointing me out this book!

Table of contents:

Historical Sketch of Copper
Braziers' Art, or Light Coppersmithing
First Year's Experience
Repairing and Tinning
The Boy's Second Year
Making Washing Coppers
Making Small JB rawing Coppers
Table of Dimensions and Capacity
Making Hand Bowls
Making Frying Pans
Making Closet Pans
Making Water Balls
Mounting for Copper Goods
Glue Pots and Tea-Kettles
Oval Tea-Kettles
Beer Mullers
Coffee Pots
Saucepans and Pudding Pots
Stock Pots
Fish and Turbot Kettles
Brazing Pans
Tea Boilers
Warming Pans
Preserving Pans
Dripping Pan and Ladle
Coal Scoops and Coal Hods
Making Coal Scoops
Planishing and Smoothing
Cranes or Syphons
Appliances of Railway and Marine Coppersmiths
Making Copper Pipe
Piecing and Joining Pipes
The Fire Pots
Fire Pot Set for Brazing Joint
Soft Soldering Large Joints
Taking Templates
Filling and Bending
Making Bends
Template Boards
Patching Pipes
Expansion Joints
Tee Pieces
Three-Way Pieces
Cross of Font-Way Pieces
Saddle Fire
Marine Work
View of Maudsley, Sons & Field's Shop
Making Large Bends
Making Double Bends
Brazing on Flanges
Short Bends
Air Pipes for Ships
Making Hollow Spheres
Brazing Sheet Brass
Locomotive Brass Work
Brazing the Joint of Valve Chimneys
Brass Dome Covers
Heavy Pipes for Breweries
Brewing Coppers or Kettles
Dome Coppers
Dome and Pan Coppers
Tallow Coppers
Dyers' Coppers
Sugar-House Work
Sugar Tieches
Film Evaporators
Coppersmith's Plugs

Care of Historic Musical Instruments (1997)

Title: The Care of Historic Musical Instruments
Editor: Robert L. Barclay
Publisher: online version
Year: 1997
Formats available: html
Link: http://cimcim.icom.museum/...
Note: Thank you to Goran Budija for pointing me out this book!

Table of contents:


Chapter 1. Ethics and the Use of Instruments
Codes of Ethics and Standards
Playability and "Soundability"

Chapter 2. Instruments in Their Environment
Conservation Assessment
Strategies for Environmental Control

Chapter 3. General Care of Musical Instrument Collections
Support for Display and Storage
Strategies to Counter Biological Attack

Chapter 4. Materials
Skin Products
Bone and Ivory
Keratinous Materials
Synthetic Organic Materials
Composite Objects

Chapter 5. Basic Conservation Treatments
Justifying Treatment
Review of Cleaning
Treatment of Wood
Treatment of Metal
Treatment of Other Materials
Treatment of Synthetic Organic Materials
Cleaning of Textiles
Treatment of Coatings
Treatment of Composites
Treatment of Instruments by Type

Chapter 6. Basic Maintenance of Playing Instruments
Keyboard Instruments
String Instruments
Brass Instruments
Selection and Monitoring of Players
Relative Costs
Retiring Instruments from Playing Status

Chapter 7. Documentation
General Principles
Object Files
Documentation and Monitoring of Instruments
Automated Resources
The Internet
Readings in Electronic Documentation