03 April 2010

Report: Database for Archiving Paintings (2007)

Title: Spectral Imaging Database by PCA & NMF for Archiving Paintings Application
Author: Yifan Zhou
Year: 2007
Pages: 72
Type of document: Internship report
Download: http://spectral.joensuu.fi/... (pdf, 3.67 Mb)

Table of Contents (short version):

1. Acknowlegments

2. Objective

3. Introduction
3.1. Advantages of using digital image processing techniques in archiving paintings application.
3.2. Reasons why we need to use spectral images instead of RGB images.
3.3. How to characterize spectral images to index and search in a database?

4. Capturing of spectral Images
4.1. Basic conceptions of acquiring spectral images.
4.2. Accomplished international projects.
4.3. One of the capturing systems in color research group.

5. Methods of PCA & NMF
5.1. Principles of pca and nmf
5.2. Adoption to spectral images transformation
5.3. Advantages and disadvantages

6. Index and Search by PCA and NMF in the Spectral Imaging Database
6.1. Construction of an imaging database
6.2. Conventional ways to index and search in an imaging database
6.3. My procedure to index and search in a spectral imaging database

7. Conclusions
7.1. Related work
7.2. Discussion of experiment results
7.3. Future research directions
7.4. Conclusion of this internship

8. References

9. Appendices
9.1. Spectral images in the spectral imaging database
9.2. Eigenvectors and non-negative vectors calculated by the whole sub-database
9.3. Index spectral images by PCA and NMF
9.4. Distance between selected V and original V, selected W and original W of 1% to 20% average selections by spectral metric of PCA
9.5. Accuracy of vectors vs. selections
9.6. Feature vectors
9.7. GFC and PSNR distance of random selections of 1% to 99%
9.8. List of functions
9.9. Abbreviation

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Book: Roman wall-painting

Title: The False-Door: dissolution and becoming in Roman wall-painting
Author: Maurice Owen
Year: 2010
Download: http://creadm.solent.ac.uk/... (html)

It examines the impact that the discovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum had on the modern world - from Neoclassicism to Disaster movies and unpacks the numerous modern filters through which we view this period in antiquity. It also puts forward new theories concerning the reasons why Pompeian artists, in 50 BC, used highly sophisticated forms of linear perspective, 1400 years before it was ‘invented’, in order to create 3-dimensional, domestically located, virtual reality environments. The thesis proposes that the wall-paintings were designed to psychologically transport the viewer to divine and ancestral worlds. This approach challenges the previous 250 years of discourse that defines them in purely decorative terms.

Table of contents:

Back to the Present
The Neoclassicism of Pompeii
Tourism, Romanticism and Pompeii
Roman Wall-Painting and Film Culture
Approaching the Wall-Paintings
The House as Sanctuary
Worshiping the House
Wall-painting and the House as Sanctuary
False - Doors

Source: As announced by its author at http://www.arts-humanities.net/...

Article: visible spectrum imaging for pigment identification (2002)

Title: The use of multi-channel visible spectrum imaging for pigment identification
Authors: Roy S. Berns and Francisco H. Imai
Reference: 13TH Triennial Meeting Rio de Janeiro Preprints, ICOM Committee for Conservation, 2002
Pages: 217-222
Download: http://www.art-si.org/... (pdf, 2.27 Mb)

Visible reflectance spectrophotometry is a valuable tool in art conservation. In particular, the spectral data can be used to evaluate potential pigment combinations for inpainting to insure metamerism is minimized. This is a critical criterion because of the wide range of museum lighting and observers, including imaging devices. Recently, a new method of pigment selection for inpainting was developed that successfully minimizes metamerism. Normally, small-aperture spectrophotometers are used. An experiment was performed to test whether this technique could be used with direct digital capture of artwork. Multi-filter colour images were used to estimate spectral reflectance factor. The accuracy of the spectral estimation depended on the spectral properties of the system calibration target. The new method of pigment selection was able to correctly identify pigments from the estimated spectra in many cases. The reported results focus on blue pigments, often a cause of significant metamerism when poorly matched.

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Article: Digital Imaging of Cultural Heritage

Title: High-Accuracy Digital Imaging of Cultural Heritage without Visual Editing
Authors: Roy S. Berns, Lawrence A. Taplin, Mahdi Nezamabadi, Yonghui Zhao and Yoshio Okumura
Download: http://www.art-si.org/... (pdf, 258 Kb)

At Rochester Institute of Technology, a research program is near completion aimed at benchmarking the quality of direct digital imaging of cultural heritage in American museums, libraries, and similar institutions. The current practice at nearly all institutions surveyed includes visual editing. Digital masters incorporate camera spatial processing, ICCt ype color management including encoding in a large-gamut RGB space, and global and local visual editing. Also at RIT, a research program is underway aimed at developing a high quality digital camera that incorporates spectral imaging. The hypothesis is that when using the new camera system, visual editing is unnecessary, greatly improving workflow efficiency and color accuracy. An experiment was performed to test this hypothesis. The experiment included spectral based imaging of both color targets and small paintings and rendering the spectral images for a colorimetrically characterized computer-controlled LCD display. The targets and paintings were viewed adjacent to the display in a laboratory lit by ceiling-mounted daylight-balanced fluorescent lights. A variety of quantitative comparisons were performed including: reflectance spectrophotometry vs. in-situ spectroradiometry, reflectance spectrophotometry vs. spectral-based imaging, forward and inverse model accuracy of the LCD colorimetric characterization, and in-situ spectroradiometric comparison of targets and paintings compared with their LCD renderings. Using the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker as an independent verification target, average color differences varied between 1.0 and 2.9 E 00. For two paintings, the average accuracy was 4.2 and 5.1 E 00. This level of accuracy exceeded that achieved by museums and libraries, even following global and local image editing, confirming our hypothesis that it is possible to create a digital archive of cultural heritage without the need for visual editing.

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Kubelka-Munk Theory for Artist Acrylic and Oil Paints (2006)

Title: Further Investigations of Colorant Database Development for Two-Constant Kubelka-Munk Theory for Artist Acrylic and Oil Paints
Authors: Yonghui Zhao, Roy S. Berns
Year: 2006
Pages: 14
Download: http://www.art-si.org/... (pdf, 6.74 Mb)

It is a common practice to prepare tint ladders of each colorant consisting of five or more concentrations in order to develop a colorant database for instrumental-based color matching, characterization of optical properties of a coloration system, and pigment mapping. For two-constant Kubelka-Munk theory, the unit absorption and scattering coefficients for each colorant can be solved by the linear-least-squares method using all the samples in the tint ladder. The objective of this research was to find the minimum number of samples in order to characterize each colorant. For the purpose of pigment identification, a pure pigment (masstone) and a mixture sample of unknown concentration with white paint were sufficient to describe each pigment qualitatively. On the other hand, pigment mapping, which resolves not only colorant constituents but also their concentrations, required a masstone and a mixture sample of known concentration, preferably 40 % to 60 % with white paint, to quantitatively characterize each colorant. For either case, only two samples were needed, which greatly simplified the process to develop a colorant database. This was tested using artist acrylic and oil paints.

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Report: Ensuring Perpetual Access- German National Hosting Strategy

Title: Ensuring Perpetual Access: Establishing a Federated Strategy on Perpetual Access and Hosting of Electronic Resources for Germany. Final Report, 2010.
Author: Charles Beagrie
Pages: 177
Year: 2010
Link: http://www.allianzinitiative.de/...
Download: http://www.allianzinitiative.de/... (pdf, 1.97 Mb)

From the Preface:
This study was conducted as basis for all further steps towards a national hosting strategy. It was financed jointly by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation), the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, the Helmholtz Association, the Leibniz Association and the Max Planck Society. The study is intended to be the starting point from which to arrive at concrete ideas and activities related to a coordinated national hosting strategy. The intensive, often controversial but always constructive and continuing discussion now expands out of the working group into the public area to be continued there in the same manner. Invited for further discussion are all stakeholders with responsibility in the German science system to establish and finance sustainable structures for perpetual access as well as long-term preservation for electronic resources.

Table of Contents:

1. Executive Summary
2. Overview of the Study Report
3. Introduction
4. The International Context
5. The Current Position in Germany
6. Views on The Future Position in Germany
7. Technical Infrastructure and Standards
8. Gap Analysis for a Federated Strategy on Perpetual Access and Hosting
9. Use Cases
10. Scenarios, Potential Solutions and Recommended Approaches
11. Future Development of the Strategy
12. References
13. Appendix 1 - Glossary and Definition of Terms
14. Appendix 2 - List of Interviewees
15. Appendix 3 - Supplement on Technical Standards

02 April 2010

Article: Museums, Disruptive Technologies and Organisational Change (2008)

Title: Making Ways for Change: Museums, Disruptive Technologies and Organisational Change
: Darren Peacock

: Museum Management and Curatorship

: 2008

: 23
Issue: 4
: 333-351

: 10.1080/09647770802517324

http://www.informaworld.com/... (pdf, Kb)

This paper aims to stimulate discussion about the nature of technology-related organisational change and how it is managed within museums. It argues that how we think about and understand change affects our ability to anticipate, shape and direct it. Drawing upon perspectives from sociology, information systems, management and organisation theory, this paper explores how we might understand and better manage change within the museums sector generally and, in particular, that which arises in our use of digital information and communication technologies (ICTs). It advocates the conscious use of theory, particularly organisational theory, to encourage new perspectives on organisations and the challenge of change represented by technology. Organisational theory particularly that informed by the 'new science' of complexity provides a rich source of insights about the nature of change which have so far been lacking in the discussion of digital cultural heritage within museums.

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Article: Reflectance spectroscopy of natural dyes (2009)

Title: Reflectance spectroscopy of natural dyes
Authors: S. Acquaviva, E. D’Anna, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Della Patria, M. Fantuzzi, S. Omarini, R. Piccolo
Reference: DGaO Proceedings 2009
ISSN: 1614-8436
Download: http://www.dgao-proceedings.de/... (pdf, 67 Kb)

Physical and chemical properties of Madder, Weld, Turmeric and Woad, produced at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties of powders and tempera models have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy technique. Micro-Raman and SEM/EDX analyses have complemented the survey.

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Article: characterization of pigments by reflectance spectroscopy (2008)

Title: Optical characterization of pigments by reflectance spectroscopy in support of UV laser cleaning treatments

Authors: S. Acquaviva, E. D’Anna, M. L. De Giorgi, A. Della Patria, L. Pezzati
Reference: Applied Physics A, Volume 92, Number 1, July 2008, pp. 223-227
DOI: 10.1007/s00339-008-4486-2
Download: http://www.ino.it/... (pdf, 344 Kb)

The study of optical properties of artwork materials is of fundamental importance for laser-based restoration techniques. In this work, reflectance spectroscopic measurements and colorimetric analyses of painted wooden models were performed to discriminate between pigments on the basis of their spectral features. In particular, the spectral reflection factors of different white pigments were recorded with a fibre optics reflectance spectroscopy module, both before and after excimer laser (248 nm) irradiation. Colour data were obtained and monitored with an integrating sphere spectrophotometer and expressed with the CIE L*a*b* colour coordinates. Moreover, the laser-induced morphological changes of the samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

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Chapter: Principles of Laser Cleaning in Conservation (2007)

Chapter title: Principles of Laser Cleaning in Conservation
Author: Salvatore Siano
Book title: Handbook on the Use of Lasers in Conservation and Conservation Science
Editors: M. Schreiner, M. Strlic
Pages: 26
Year: 2007
Download: http://www.ino.it/... (pdf, 553 Kb)
Note: the book
is available in html format at http://alpha1.infim.ro/...

Table of contents:

2.1 Principles of Laser Cleaning in Conservation
2.1.1 Introduction
2.1.2 Historical Note
2.1.3 Laser Systems and Parameters
2.1.4 Linear Laser-Material Interaction Absorption and Scattering Laser Heating Photoacoustic Effects
2.1.5 Non-linear Interaction Effects
2.1.6 Note on Laser induced Plasma
2.1.7 Ablation Channels Ablation Rate
2.1.8 Conclusive Note
2.1.9 Supporting Information References

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Article: reflectography and thermography for paintings

Title: Integrated reflectography and thermography for wooden paintings diagnostics
Authors: Dario Ambrosini, Claudia Daffara, Roberta Di Biase, Domenica Paoletti, Luca Pezzati, Roberto Bellucci, Francesca Bettini
Reference: Journal of Cultural Heritage, vol. 11, n.º 2, 2010, pp. 196-204
DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2009.05.001
Download: http://www.ino.it/... (pdf, 2.27 Mb)

The need of inspecting a masterpiece of fine art without affecting it led to develop non destructive methods of investigation. In the field of art conservation, several diagnostic techniques are being widely used to inspect works of art, giving different but complementary results. The present work deals with two of these methods, reflectography and thermography, both techniques examining objects in the infrared spectrum but in different wavelength bands. Their integrated data potentially provide a powerful tool for mapping hidden features and alterations of artworks. This was confirmed during the inspections of a 13th century panel painting under restoration at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure laboratories (Florence, Italy). A graphical user interface was also designed to aid operators in the field of conservation dealing with the results of the two IR methods. Many options such as image adjustment, comparison, overlaying and transparency variation, in addition to thermographic elaborations, have been made available to users. Imaging data integration provides a multi-layered and multi-spectral representation of the painting that yields a comprehensive diagnosis confirms the anomalies individuation and reduces the ambiguities of information coming from a single diagnostic method.

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31 March 2010

iPRES 2009

Title: iPRES 2009: the Sixth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects
Conference Date: October 5-6, 2009
Conference Venue: San Francisco, California, USA
Year: 2009
online view and pdf of each article at http://www.escholarship.org/...
Download: Vídeos and presentations are available at http://www.cdlib.org/...

Table of contents:

Stephen Abrams, et al., An Emergent Micro-Services Approach to Digital Curation Infrastructure

Reinhard Altenhöner, e-Infrastructure and Digital Preservation: Challenges and Outlook

Martha Anderson, et al., The National Digital Stewardship Alliance Charter: Enabling Collaboration to Achieve National Digital Preservation

Emmanuelle Bermès, Louise Faudet, The Human Face of Digital Preservation: Organizational and Staff Challenges, and Initiatives at the Bibliothèque nationale de France

Geoffrey Brown, Kam Woods, Born Broken: Fonts and Information Loss in Legacy Digital Documents

Priscilla Caplan, et al., Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR)

Esther Conway, et al., Curating Scientific Research Data for the Long Term: A Preservation Analysis Method in Context

Angela Dappert, Adam Farquhar, Implementing Metadata that Guides Digital Preservation Services

Angela Di Iorio, A Translation Layer to Convey Preservation Metadata

David Giaretta, et al., Significant Properties, Authenticity, Provenance, Representation Information and OAIS Information

David Giaretta, Tools for Preservation and Use of Complex and Diverse Digital Resources

Rebecca Guenther, Robert Wolfe, Integrating Metadata Standards to Support Long-Term Preservation of Digital Assets: Developing Best Practices for Expressing Preservation Metadata in a Container Format

Mark Guttenbrunner, et al., Digital Archeology: Recovering Digital Objects from Audio Waveforms

Ulla Bøgvad Kejser, et al., Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

Matthew Kirschenbaum, et al., Preserving Access to Computers as Complete Environments

Christopher Lee, et al., Mainstreaming Preservation through Slicing and Dicing of Digital Repositories: Investigating Alternative Service and Resource Options for Context Miner Using Data Grid Technology

Henry Lowood, Memento Mundi: Are Virtual Worlds History?

Jens Ludwig, Into the Archive: Potential and Limits of Standardizing the Ingest

Brian Matthews, et al., Towards a Methodology for Software Preservation

David Minor, et al., Chronopolis: Preserving our Digital Heritage

Maureen Pennock, Richard Davis, ArchivePress: A Really Simple Solution to Archiving Blog Content

Klaus Rechert, et al., Novel Workflows for Abstract Handling of Complex Interaction Processes in Digital Preservation

Rainer Schmidt, et al., A Framework for Distributed Preservation Workflows

Sabine Schrimpf, Lessons Learned: Moving a Digital Preservation Network from Project Organization to Sustainability

Pauline Sinclair, et al., Are You Ready? Assessing Whether Organisations are Prepared for Digital Preservation

Johanna Smith, Pam Armstrong, Preserving the Digital Memory of the Government of Canada: Influence and Collaboration with Records Creators

David Tarrant, Steve Hitchcock, Les Carr, Where the Semantic Web and Web 2.0 Meet Format Risk Management: P2 Registry

René van Horik, Dirk Roorda, MIXED: Repository of Durable File Format Conversions

Tyler Walters, Distributed Digital Preservation: Technical, Sustainability, and Organizational Developments

Paul Wheatley, Brian Hole, LIFE3: Predicting Long Term Digital Preservation Costs

Wolfgang Wilkes, et al., Towards Support for Long-Term Digital Preservation in Product Life Cycle Management

Bienes Culturales En Zonas Sismicas (1987)

Title: Entre Dos Terremotos: Los Bienes Culturales En Zonas Sismicas
Editor: Bernard M. Feilden
Publisher: The Getty Conservation Institute
Year: 1987
Pages: 116
Download: http://www.getty.edu/... (pdf, 4.9 Mb)

Table of contents:

I. El patrimonio cultural y los terremotos
II. Antes del terremoto
III. Medidas de urgencia
IV. Despues del terremoto
1. Protección contra incendios de los edificios históricos
2. Listados de comprobación computarizados
3. La fotogrametria y los terremotos
4. La planificación para la protección de instituciones culturales y sus colecciones
5. La Escala de Intensidad de Mercalli Modificada
6. De la restauración al mantenimiento de los edificios históricos
7. Formularios para la evaluación de datos
8. La intervención estructural en los edificios históricos
9. Curso internacional sobre medidas preventivas para la protecci6n de los bienes culturales en regiones sismicas
10. Curso-taller internacional sobre la rehabilitación estructural y funcional de viviendas y edificios hist6ricos en las areas sismicas
11. Condiciones de suelo: microzonificaci6n
12. Preparativos para una emergencia
13. Resolución sobre los bienes culturales en areas sísmicas (ICCROM)

Conservation of Earthen Architecture (1990)

Title: 6th International Conference on the Conservation of Earthen Architecture: Adobe 90 preprints: Las Cruces, New Mexico, U.S.A.
Publisher: The Getty Conservation Institute
Year: 1990
Pages: 162 + 100 + 150 + 80
Downloadable in four pdf files:
Section 1 (pdf, 10.4 Mb)
Section 2 (pdf, 6.7 Mb)
Section 3 (pdf, 9.4 Mb)
Section 4 (pdf, 4 Mb)

Table of Contents (short version):

Section 1
History and Traditions

Section 2
Conservation and Restoration
Site Preservation

Section 3
Consolidation Studies
Seismic Mitigation
Current Field Research

Section 4
Problems of Moisture
Clay Chemistry and Microstructure
Future Directions

29 March 2010

Materials and Techniques in Art

Title: The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art
Editor: Gerald W. R. Ward
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Year: 2008
Pages: 828
ISBN: 0195313917, 9780195313918
Book View: http://books.google.com/...
Over 400 entries are available at http://www.mywire.com/... (html)

Table of Contents:
A Note on the Use of the Enclyclopedia
Illustration Acknowledgments
The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Note: Information seen at http://ciarteblog.blogspot.com/...