10 April 2010

Fiber Image Library

This is not quite a publication but no doubt an important resource.

Link: https://fril.osu.edu/

The Fiber Reference Image Library (FRIL), a database of micrographs of textile fibers acquired through the use of multiple microscopic techniques, is now available at https://fril.osu.edu/. Scientists who deal with textiles and fibers, including textile conservators, archaeologists, forensic scientists and students will find the site to be a useful a source of comparative images to aid in fiber identification and characterization.
The database is divided into three large categories, Plant fibers, Animal fibers, and Man-made fibers. Each of these categories includes many collections, organized by generic class. Micrographs are shown of single fibers and fiber groups examined using brightfield, darkfield, polarized light, and differential interference contrast techniques. Through these sequences of images, differentiating characteristics of the fibers may be seen, aiding in identification. For further information, the site includes links to pages such as How to Use FRIL, Resources, Glossary and FAQs, and Browse Collections as well as a Search tab that can be used to locate a fiber generic type or a specific feature of interest.
This website was developed under a grant from the National Park Service and the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, with the first phase primarily focused on construction of the website and inclusion of images of fibers from the Comparative Plant Fiber Collection, a collection of plant fibers typical of those used by prehistoric native Americans in eastern North America. Since the fibers were processed from the plant stems in different ways, the images provide evidence for the cellular structures that remain attached to phloem fiber cells with different types of processing and aid in fiber identification. This will be particularly useful for those who study fiber perishables.
The site also incorporates images of animal and man-made fibers, with more images planned for these sections. Images of fibers from selected 19th and 20th century garments from Ohio State University's Historic Costume & Textiles Collection (HCTC) are included and these are linked to images and information about the garments from which they came, housed under the HCTC website (https://mediamanager.osu.edu/).
FRIL can also be used as a teaching tool, providing information about fibers, microscopy, and forensic techniques of fiber identification.
The FRIL website was developed under a grant from the National Park Service and the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the Nation Park Service or the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training.

Note: according to the Textile Conservators ListServ.

Thesis: preparatory grounds used by Van Gogh (2006)

Title: Paints quantified: image analytical studies of preparatory grounds used by Van Gogh
Author: Beatrice Marino
University: University of Amsterdam
Year: 2006
ISBN-13: 978-90-77209-19-6
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://www-old.amolf.nl/... (pdf files available)

From the Introduction:
In this thesis an in-depth imaging analytical study of grounds in a group of pictures painted on ready-primed carton supports is conducted, to investigate the differences between the paints. The study follows a new approach based on quantitative analytical techniques. The broader aim is to develop new, quantitative techniques for comparing and classifying paint sample cross-sections.

Table of Contents (short version):

1. Introduction

2. Imaging-SIMS characterization of selected ground paints in paintings by Van Gogh
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Materials
2.3 Interpretation of SIMS data
2.4 Case study
2.5 Technical discussion and conclusions
2.6 Acknowledgements
2.7 References

Appendix to Chapter 2
A.2.1 Menilite, the Paris Basin, and paint manufacturing and trading
A.2.2 Chert and menilite
A.2.3 Geology of the Paris Basin
A.2.4 Observations on the characteristics of other materials found in paints
A.2.5 Final comments
A.2.6 Acknowledgements
A.2.7 References

3. Quantitative colour analysis of ground paints in paint cross-sections
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Materials
3.3 Method of colour comparison in digital images
3.4 Discussion of the case study: grounds in paintings by van Gogh
3.5 Conclusions
3.6 Acknowledgements
3.7 References

4. Quantitative analysis of composition of ground paints in paint cross-sections
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Materials
4.3 Methodology of comparison of the material composition
4.4 Case study: grounds in paintings by van Gogh
4.5 Conclusions
4.6 Acknowledgements
4.7 References

5. Quantitative analysis of texture of ground paints in paint cross-sections
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Texture, structure, and morphology
5.3 Materials and methods
5.4 Method of texture analysis
5.5 Case study: selected grounds of van Gogh
5.6 Conclusions
5.7 Acknowledgements
5.8 References

6. A NanoSIMS study of a paint cross-section from a ground of Van Gogh's plaster figure of a female torso
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Materials
6.3 Results
6.4 Conclusions
6.5 Acknowledgements
6.6 References

Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C

09 April 2010

Article: Mural Paintings in Coptic Monasteries (2003)

Title: Mural Paintings in Coptic Monasteries: Problems of Dating and Conservation

Author: Karel Innemée

Reference: Living for Eternity: The White Monastery and its Neighborhood. Proceedings of a Symposium at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, March 6 – 9. 2003. Ed. Philip Sellew.
Download: http://egypt.cla.umn.edu/... (text pdf, 164 Kb)
http://egypt.cla.umn.edu/... (article with images, pdf, 18.5 Mb)

Egyptian churches preserve paintings from the first centuries of Christianity when Egypt was a leader in church affairs, as well as from later periods that show the continued vigor of Egyptian ("Coptic") Christianity long after the Arab conquest of Egypt. These paintings have often suffered from neglect, and paradoxically the current revival of monasticism and of pilgrimage sometimes creates conditions that further endangering them. This lecture will present the current achievements of the conservation project at Deir al-Suriani (the Monastery of the Syrians), discussing the problems of conservation, dating, and interpretation when there are several superimposed layers of painting. It will relate this situation to that in other sites, particularly the so-called Red Monastery in Upper Egypt.

08 April 2010

Article: 2D and 3D optical diagnistic techniques (2004)

Title: 2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Pisanello's "Portrait of Lionello D'Este"
: R. Bellucci, P. Carcagnì, A. Della Patria, R. Fontana, C. Frosinini, M. Gambino, M. Greco, L. Marras, M. Materazzi, E. Pampaloni, A. Pelagotti, L.
Pezzati, P. Poggi
: Proceedings of the International Tropical Meeting on Optical Sensing and Artificial Vision, OSAV'2004, Saint Petersburg

: http://www.ino.it/... (pdf, 4.3 Mb)

Abstract: We describe devices and methods for imaging analysis and 3D survey of artworks developed at INOA, in collaboration with OPD, and the results obtained on Pisanello's "Portrait of Lionello d'Este", dating back to the XV century. [...]

Thesis: Binding medium, pigments and metal soaps (2005)

Title: Binding medium, pigments and metal soaps characterised and localised in paint cross-sections
Author: Katrien Keune
University: University of Amsterdam
Year: 2005
ISBN: 978-90-77209-17-2
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://www.amolf.nl/... (pdf)
New Link: http://dare.uva.nl/... (pdf)

Table of contents (short version)


1. Introduction
2. Imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry of paint cross-section taken from an early Netherlandish painting by Rogier van der Weyden
3. Studies on oil binding media in paint cross-sections
4. Analytical imaging studies clarifying the process of the darkening of vermilion in paintings
5. Metal soap aggregates in oil paintings from the 15th-20th century

Thesis: Color changes in oil paintings (2008)

Title: Color changes and chemical reactivity in seventeenth-century oil paintings
Author: Annelies van Loon
University: University of Amsterdam
Year: 2008
ISBN: 978-90-77209-17-2
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://www.amolf.nl/... (pdf)
New Link: http://dare.uva.nl/... (pdf)

Tis thesis focuses on changes in appearance in seventeenth-century oil paintings as a result of natural ageing. It involves interdisciplinary research at the boundary of chemistry, conservation and art history. Interpretation problems that arose during restoration treatment of paintings formed the basis for much of the work. The case studies presented include paintings and painted ceilings from the Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, the Oranjezaal ensemble in the Royal Palace Huis ten Bosch, the Johan de Witt house, the Trippenhuis, and the Staatliche Museen Kassel.

Table of contents (short version):

1. Improving the surface quality of paint cross-sections for analytical imaging studies with SR-FTIR and static-SIMS
2. The relationship between preservation and technique in the paintings of the Oranjezaal
3. The whitening of bone black in oil paint films
4. White hazes and surface crusts on dark oil paint films
5. Darkening as a result of increased transparency in 17th C oil paintings

Cultural Heritage in Postwar Recovery (2007)

Title: Cultural Heritage in Postwar Recovery
Editor: Nicholas Stanley-Price
Publisher: ICCROM
Conference: ICCROM FORUM, October 4-6, 2005
Year: 2007
Pages: 128
ISBN: 92-9077-201-8
Link: www.iccrom.org/... (pdf, 4.72 Mb)

Table of contents:
1. The thread of continuity: cultural heritage in postwar recovery, Nicholas Stanley-Price
2. Cultural destruction by war, and its impact on group identities, Neal Ascherson
3. Postwar reconstruction and recovery of cultural heritage: critical lessons from the last fifteen years, Sultan Barakat
4. Divided cities and ethnic conflict in the urban domain, Jon Calame
5. Hmong postwar identity production: heritage maintenance and cultural reinterpretation, Gary Yia Lee
6. Recovering a family heritage: a personal experience in east Germany, Hermann Graf von Pückler
7. Political conflict and recovery of cultural heritage in Palestine, Suad Amiry and Khaldun Bshara
8. Armed conflict and culture change in Chiapas, Mexico, Valerie Magar
9. The restoration of the Temple of the Tooth Relic in Kandy Sri Lanka: a post-conflict cultural response to loss of identity, Gamini Wijesuriya
10. Armed conflicts, peace culture and protection of cultural heritage in West Africa, Boureima Tiékoroni Diamitani
11. Promoting cultural heritage in a postwar environment: the Côte d'Ivoire, Hortense Zagbayou
12. Promoting cultural heritage in postwar recovery: El Salvador, Héctor Ismael Sermeño

Thesis: Analysis of oil paint (2002)

Title: Microspectroscopic analysis of traditional oil paint
Author: Jaap van der Weerd
University: University of Amsterdam
Year: 2002
ISBN: 90-801704-8-8
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://www.amolf.nl/... (pdf)
New link: http://dare.uva.nl/... (pdf)

Table of contents (short version):

1. Imaging studies in paintings research
2. The identification of pigments in paint cross-sections by reflection visible light imaging miceospectroscopy (VIS-imaging)
3. A practical evaluation of preparation methods and accessories for the infrared spectroscopic analysis of traditional paint
4. FTIR microscopic imaging of an embedded paint cross-section
5. FTIR studies of the effects of pigments in the ageing of oil
6. Chemical changes in old master paintings: dissolution, metal soap formation, and remineralisation processes in lead pigmented paint layers of 17th centrury paintings
7. Metal carboxylates in the grounds of 19th century preprimed canvases used by F. Church
8. Zinc soap aggregate formation in 'Falling Leaves (Les Alyscamps)' by Vincent van Gogh

Preservation of photographic material (2009)

Title: Preservation of photographic material
Author: Susie Clark
Publisher: The British Library
Series: Preservation guidance booklets
Pages: 19
ISBN: 978 0 7123 0909 7
Download: http://www.bl.uk/... (pdf, 500 Kb)

From the Introduction:
Photographs are housed in libraries, archives and museums all over the world. Whilst photographic conservation is a relatively new specialism and treatment options are often limited, it is usually possible to prolong the life of a photograph through good preservation practices in handling, housekeeping and storage. This booklet describes the most common historical photographic processes,outlines the causes of deterioration and provides guidelines on good preservation practice. It is aimed at people working or volunteering in libraries, archives and museums whose responsibilities include photographic collections.Whilst the booklet focuses on monochrome photographs, much of the information is applicable to colour photographs and other imaging materials such as microfilm, x-rays and motion picture film.

Damaged books (2010)

Title: Damaged books
Author: Caroline Bendix
Publisher: The British Library
Series: Preservation guidance booklets
Pages: 19
ISBN: 978 0 7123 5097 6
Download: http://www.bl.uk/... (pdf, 340 Kb)

From the Introduction:
This booklet describes the most common types of damage to books. It will help you to identify different types of damage, recognise the causes of the damage, and understand what remedial work might be undertaken and by whom. It is not exhaustive and if there is any doubt about what action to take you should consult an accredited conservator.

04 April 2010

Article: Spectral Imaging of Matisse’s Pot of Geraniums

Title: Spectral Imaging of Matisse’s Pot of Geraniums: A Case Study
Authors: Roy S. Berns, Lawrence A. Taplin, Francisco H. Imai, Ellen A. Day, David C. Day
Reference: IS&T and SID 11th Color Imaging Conference, IS&T
Download: http://www.art-si.org/PDFs/Acquisition/CIC03_Berns.pdf (pdf, 780 Kb)

The accuracy of color image-acquisition systems is most often evaluated using test targets of uniform color patches imaged under optimal conditions. In artwork imaging, system performance is judged visually, comparing the art with images rendered for display or print. Because the surface properties of the art may not be uniform, the spectral properties of the pigments may be different than the test targets, the sizes may be different, renderings are often metameric to the art, taking and viewing lighting geometries may be different, and the museum observers are more experienced than scientists in judging color accuracy visually, color accuracy as determined on a visual basis may be quite different than target performance. Therefore, an experiment was performed where a spectral-imaging system, designed for scientific purposes under laboratory conditions, was taken to a museum and tested in its photographic and conservation departments. The work of art evaluated was Henri Matisse’s Pot of Geraniums. Spectral and colorimetric comparisons were made between in situ small aperture spectrophotometry and imaging. The average performance was 3.7 E 00 and 3.1 % spectral RMS; this was similar to an independent verification target of typical artist pigments applied to a canvas board. Viewed in close up, this level of accuracy yielded reasonable color matching for images rendered for display and print. Viewed overall, the matching quality worsened, a result of using diffuse lighting during image acquisition. Renderings appeared “flat” and reduced in perceived contrast. This indicates that when creating an image archive for both scientific and visual purposes, it will be necessary to use both directional and diffuse lighting geometries.

In case you would like to share this publication, please acknowledge this source.

Article: Identifying standard practices in research library book conservation

: Identifying standard practices in research library book conservation

Authors: Whitney Baker, Liz Dube
Download: http://hdl.handle.net/1808/5818 (pdf, 350 Kb)

The field of research library conservation has emerged as a distinct discipline and undergone major refinements over the past fifty years: professional organizations and training programs have been established, new treatment techniques have been developed and promoted, and, increasingly, special and general collections practitioners have collaborated on treatment solutions. Despite such dramatic growth and definition within the field, there has been no comprehensive assessment of the book treatment practices employed by research libraries for special and general collections. In response to this need, a study was undertaken to investigate and document the types of treatments employed by research libraries to conserve and maintain their book collections, and to compare the practices used for special collections with those used for general collections. This paper describes the evolution of the field over the past fifty years and identifies book conservation techniques the study found to be routinely, moderately, or rarely employed in research libraries. A comparison of special and general collections treatment practices suggests that while notable differences exist, many treatment practices are common in both contexts. Implications of the study's results and potential applications for this new information are stated.