08 May 2010

Proceedings: Wood Science for Conservation of Cultural Heritage

COST Action IE0601 “Wood Science for Conservation of Cultural Heritage”
International Conference on Wooden Cultural Heritage: Evaluation of Deterioration and Management of Change (Hamburg/Germany; October 7-10, 2009)

Link: http://www.woodculther.com/?p=272 Abstract booklet (pdf)


Role of electron microscopy in understanding deterioration of wooden objects of cultural heritage, A. Singh
Structural Conservation of Panel Paintings: Tradition, Innovation, Initiatives, J. Wadum

Session 2
Consolidation, reinforcement and stabilisation of decorated wooden artefacts ; Prague, 30-31.3.09, I. Kucerova, T. Olstad
Wood-destroying insects and decay fungi in and moulds on wooden cultural heritage objects and constructions (Training School); Hamburg, 16-20.3.09, Uwe Noldt

Session 3

The use of an electric field for the removal of alum from treated wooden objects, I. V. Christensen et al. (pdf)

New materials used for the consolidation of archaeological wood – past attempts, present struggles, and future requirements, M. Christensen, F. K. Hansen, H. Kutzke
Destructive and non-destructive methods for the evaluation of pesticides concentration and emissions from wooden art objects, I. Mayer, K. Hunger, M. Wörle, V. Hubert, U. von Arx
Risk management: a case study of the wooden collection held in storage at the folk art museum of Athens, C. Sperantza, M. Papadimitriou, A. Pournou

Session 4

Factors that influence the speed of bacterial wood degradation, R. Klaassen
Mechanical characteristics of aged Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) wood from Japanese historical buildings – Comparative analyses with accelerated aging wood, M. Yokoyama et al.
Moisture behaviour of recent and naturally aged wood, T. Gereke, K. Anheuser, E. Lehmann, P. Niemz
Numerical Simulation of Historical Pianoforte, S. Saft, M. Kaliske

Session 5

Case study: assessment the mechanical properties from an old “pitch pine” timber structure, M.C. Touza Vazquez
Characterization of archaeological oak (Quercus sp.) with mid and near infrared spectroscopy, A. Sandak, J. Sandak, M. Zborowska, W. Prądzyński, N. Negri (pdf)

Session 6
X-Ray Microscopy of wood based products, Alan Michette
X-Ray Tomography, J. Bielecki

Short Orals

Study on the use of polymers in the treatment and conservation of historical wood, Abdel Rahman Medhat, Yassien Zidan, Nesrin M.N. El Hadidi (pdf)

The Conservation of the Historic Timber Roof of the Royal Palace at the Tocnik Castle, Jiri Bláha , M. Kloiber, J. Frankl, M. Drdácký, J. Valach, P.
Růžička (pdf)
The Presence of Sulphuric Acid in Alum-conserved Wood – Origin and Consequences, Susan Braovac, Hartmut Kutzke (pdf)

Authentication of ancient stringed musical instruments – the contribution of X-Ray Fluorescence analysis, B. Constantinescu Catalina Pauna, Daniela Stan
Fire risk and protection of old timber roofs – need for focused meetings, Helena Cruz, Pedro Palma (pdf)
Evaluation of bacterial wood degradation by FTIR measurement, J Gelbrich, Carsten Mai, Holger Militz (pdf)

Use of boron compounds for treatment of wooden historical objects, Boštjan Lesar, Franc Pohleven and Miha Humar (pdf)

Wood-science approach to the preservation of historic timber structures, Margarita Kisternaya, Valery Kozlov (pdf)

Evaluation of the aging wood from historical buildings as compared with the accelerated aging wood and cellulose – Analysis of color properties, Miyuki
Matsuo Misao Yokoyama, et al. (pdf)
Different techniques (SEM, DR-µCT,FIB/SEM) for the evaluation of the deposition of consolidants into waterlogged archaeological wood, G. Giachi, S. Bugani,
J.J. Łucejko, F Modugno, F. Tatti (pdf) Diagnosis of Timber Structures and Archaeological Wood of Cultural Heritage, Kalle Pilt, Vello Pallav, Matis Miljan (pdf)
Detection of rot in wood beams by ultrasound method – model and practical studies, Ladislav Reinprecht, Miloš Pánek (pdf)
Monitoring of photodegradation for wood by infrared spectroscopy, Laszlo Tolvaj (pdf)

Reports from STSMs

Termites attacks on ancient timber structures: diagnosis, identification and methods of control, E. Feci (pdf)

Modal analysis and vibrational behaviour of tailpieces in stringed instruments, Eric Fouilhé, Giacomo Goli, Anne Houssay, George Stoppani (pdf)

Contributions of Janssen PMP towards preservation of wooden (and other) cultural heritage, Jan Bosselaers (pdf)
The Study of Biological Decay with Church Icons on Wooden Support from Romania, Livia Bucsa, Corneliu Bucsa (pdf)

Monitoring Xylophages Insects in the Outdoor Section of “Dumbrava Sibiu”, NMC (the national museum center), ASTRA, Pruna Mariana, Ileana Chirtea (pdf)

The wooden supports in Portugal: the Pentecost in different altarpiece structures, Ana Calvo, Joana Salgueiro, Salomé de Carvalho (pdf)

Follow-up of a panel restoration procedure through image correlation and finite elements modelling, A. Baldit, D. Dureisseix, F. Morestin, H. Maigre (pdf)

Inspection Techniques and Rehabilitation Solutions for Ancient Wooden Structures: some Portuguese Case Studies, A Fejo H. Cruz (pdf)

On 18th and 19th Century Sacristy Furniture in the Maltese Islands: Preservation, Michael Formosa (pdf)

Preliminary testing of timber consolidants applied by impregnation, Dulce Franco Henriques, Lina Nunes, Jorge de Brito (pdf)

Application of spatial analysis operations for the characterization of wood painting features, Frederico Henriques, Alexandre Gonçalves, Ana Calvo, Ana
Bailão (pdf)
An artwork: alterable – not unalterable. A critical analysis of the restoration process as a creative factor within an artwork’s new structure. The case of the collection of western panel paintings from the Museum in Tarnowskie Gory, Aleksandra Hola (pdf)
Hygromechanical response of a painted panel in a church: monitoring and computer modelling, Jullien Colmars, Bertrand Marcon, Joseph Gril (pdf)

Time to reach the equilibrium moisture content: in laboratory tests on Poplar (Populus alba L.) mock-up panels, Paola Mazzanti, Luca Uzielli (pdf)
Characterization of archaeological waterlogged wood by pyrolytic and mass spectrometric techniques, J Lucejko, F. Modugno, E. Ribechini, M. Zborowska, M.P. Colombini (pdf)
Potential of reflected light microscopy as a non-invasive identification tool on wooden cultural artefacts, Flavio Ruffinatto, Nicola Macchioni, Guido
Boetto, Roberto Zanuttini (pdf)
How to gather aged wood samples from historical buildings in Japanese context, Misao Yokoyama, Shuichi Kawai, Junji Sugiyama (pdf)

Characterization of archaeological wood degradation with selected nondestructive methods, Magdalena Zborowska, Anna Sandak, Jakub Sandak, Sławomir
Borysiak, Wlodzimierz Prądzyński (doc)

06 May 2010

Article: Conservation of Feathers (2005)

Title: Considerations in the Conservation of Feathers and Hair, Particularly their Pigments
: Jocelyn Hudon

: Fur Trade Legacy. The Preservation of Organic Materials, M. Brunn and J. A. Burns (ed.), Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property, Ottawa, Ontario, 2005, pp. 127-147.

: http://www.royalalbertamuseum.ca/... (PDF file, 4 Mb)

Feathers are amongst the most complex epidermal derivatives found in vertebrates. They have complex branched structures, grow from their bases by a unique mechanism, and come in a wide variety of sizes, shapes, structures, and colours. Not only do feathers impart cover, insulation, waterproofing of the body, contribute to flight, tactile sensations or protection of sensory organs, even storing water, they are also involved in myriad aspects of communication and display in birds, and characteristically rather ornately. Underlying this diversity of colours and patterns found in birds is a variety of pigments (melanins, carotenoids, psittacofulvins, porphyrins, etc.), pigment-bearing structures and molecules, and complex micro- and macrostructures.
Given the great structural and functional diversity of feathers it should come as no surprise that their conservation should require a multifaceted approach. Accordingly, a brief review of feather anatomy, including the arrangement of feathers on the skin (pterylosis), chemical composition, even the native fauna of feathers (e.g., lice, mites, bacteria) will be provided, emphasizing aspects of feathers that may be of relevance to conservators. Since cleaning methods are well covered by other speakers, my focus will be on the preventive conservation of feather and fur colour from light. I will show how even pigment systems that seem biochemically homogenous—like the melanins of mammals—show surprisingly complex and species-specific responses to light. For example, in pilot fading experiments, mink, but not marten, fur darkened initially upon exposure to light. Attempts to quench free radicals likely generated by light irradiation did not appear to slow fading down.


ANAGPIC 2009 Student Papers, presented at the 2009 Annual Student Conference hosted by the Buffalo State College Art Conservation Department
Link: http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/...


When New and Improved Becomes Outdated and Degraded: The Technical Study and Treatment of a 1964 Pop Art Painted Collage, Sharra Grow (pdf)

The Occurrence and Detection of Gunpowder in Haitian Vodou Charms; The Pakèt Kongo, Lauren Anne Horelick (pdf)

Evolving Authenticity in Henri Matisse's The Swimming Pool, Eliza Spaulding (pdf)

The Investigation and Treatment of a Javanese Shadow Puppet from the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Marie Stewart (pdf)


The Effect of Aged Varnish on Paper Objects, Melina Avery (pdf)

A Cut Above: The Crayola Cutter as Conservation Tool, Lisa Conte, Lisa Nelson, Katherine Sanderson, & Eliza Spaulding (pdf)

The Application of Cyclododecane (CDD) for Lifting Fragile Lacquer Fragments from Burial Environments, Jiafang Liang (pdf)

A Map Melee: Starting a Survey of the Map Special Collection at Yale University, Katie Risseeuw (pdf)

Consolidative Reduction of Lead Objects, Beth Rydzewski (pdf)

Preservation and restoration of paper records and books (1985)

Title: The Preservation and restoration of paper records and books: a RAMP study with guidelines
: Carmen Crespo and Vicente Viñas

Reference: General Information Programme and UNISIST, Unesco, Paris, 1985
: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/... (pdf, Mb)

From the Preface
The present study, carried out under a contract with the International Council on Archives, is for archivists and librarians, especially in developing countries. It makes a detailed review of the systems and principles relevant to the planning and implementation of a programme for the preservation and restoration of paper documents and books. Comments on the preliminary version of this study were requested from experts of the International Council of Archives, specialists in this field. This study contains the most recent results and experience in the field of archival research.

Table of Contents (short version):
1. Paper as Support

2. Inks, the Graphic Elements of Documents
3. Causes and Effects of Deterioration

4. Preventive Methods of Conservation

5. Conservation Controls

6. Restoration

7. Summary

Dictionary of English - Portuguese technical terms

Title: Small dictionary of English - Portuguese technical terms used in Conservation of Photography
: Luís Pavão

Pages: 7
Link: http://www.lupa.com.pt/... (pdf, 26 Kb)

Thesis: rock art deterioration (2009)

Title: Evaluating the rate of rock art deterioration in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park, KwaZulu-Natal
Author: Tsepang Cecillia Leuta
University: University of Pretoria
Year: 2009
Type of Document: Master's Dissertation
Link: http://up.ac.za/... (pdf, 4.38 Mb)

One of the key reasons for the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park’s status as a World Heritage Sites due is the abundance of rock art there. Unfortunately, through time, much of the rock art heritage in the Park is being lost through natural rock weathering processes, the decay of pigments and through the actions of people. The fragile art heritage is non-renewable and, therefore, requires specialized management.
In a case study, specific San paintings from Battle Cave study area were analysed using scanned and digital photographs with Geographic Information Systems software. Older images were compared with more recent ones and this was utilised to classify pigment colours and quantify the amount of deterioration that has taken place overtime. Various methodologies were applied to classifying the images, and it was found that manual digitising provided the best means for quantifying the amount of deterioration.
A detailed analysis was undertaken of a feline painting at Battle Cave, as it had the best quality images that could be dated. Results showed that white pigment in the painting degraded more rapidly than the ochre colours. Visual analysis suggests that the damage to the figure is predominantly through pigment decay and through the granular disaggregation of the rock surface. Where pigments were applied to what were clearly weathered rock surfaces, the change was greatest over the 40-year intervening period between images analysed.
The methodology utilised in this study can be utilised to evaluate the rate of decay of rock art and is, therefore a useful tool for determining priorities with regard to the conservation of San paintings. In addition, the rate of deterioration is useful for evaluating and quantifying the contribution of rock weathering to landscape evolution.

Table of contents (short version):

1. Introduction
2. Conservation and Preservation of Rock Art
3. Geographical setting and research methodology
4. Analysis and Discussion
5. Concluding remarks and recommendations

05 May 2010

Thesis: Raman spectroscopy applied to iron oxide pigments (2008)

Title: Raman spectroscopy applied to iron oxide pigments from waste materials and earthenware archaeological objects
: Malebogo Andries Legodi

: University of Pretoria

Year: 2008
Type of Document
: PhD Thesis

: http://up.ac.za/... (pdf)

Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique. It gives a unique combination of non-destructive analysis, high spatial resolution and phase characterisation. In the current study Raman spectroscopy was used as the primary technique during the study of chemical components in archaeological earthenware samples (i.e. low temperature fired clay pottery) of South African and Chinese origin, and characterisation of iron oxides derived from mill scale. One shard from each of the South African archaeological sites (Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop) was analysed by Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The common features observed were montmorillonite (Mg3(Si,Al)4(OH)2.4.5H2O[Mg]0.35), kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)5), quartz (α-SiO2), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi3O8), hematite (α-Fe2O3), calcium silicate (CaSiO3) and illite (KAl4(Si7AlO20)(OH)4). Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) and calcium carbonates (CaCO3) were detected in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon was observed in Lydenburg and Makahane shards while rutile appeared only in Makahane shard. The Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO4). The Chinese clay samples investigated by Raman spectroscopy were from the J A Van Tilburg museum at the University of Pretoria. The large red shard was recovered from the 1552 Portuguese shipwreck, São João, found around Port Edward, South Africa. Four other shards (two red and two gray) were recovered from the 1622 Portuguese shipwreck, the São João Baptista, found around Kenton-on-Sea off the South African coast. A 19th century Chinese teapot was also analysed. Hematite, kaolin, quartz, amorphous carbon and aluminosilicates were observed in all three red shards. All these components, except quartz, were also observed in the teapot. The gray shards showed the presence of quartz, kaolin, amorphous carbon and aluminosilicates. The pigments identified were hematite (in red samples) and black amorphous carbon (in all samples). Magnetite and goethite were precipitated from mill scale-derived precursors in aqueous media. Hematite was then prepared from the calcination of goethite at 750°C and maghemite from the thermal treatment of magnetite at 200°C. The iron oxides were characterised by Raman spectroscopy, XRD, surface area determination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). They were generally composed of very small sized particles showing high surface area values.

Table of contents (short version):
1. Overall Introduction

2. Literature Review

3. Raman Spectroscopy

4. Raman Spectroscopy study of ancient South African domestic clay pottery

5. Raman analysis of red-brown and gray shards from 16th and 17th century Portuguese shipwrecks

6. The preparation of magnetite, goethite, hematite and maghemite of pigment quality from mill scale iron waste

7. Overall conclusion

Thesis: Raman spectroscopy of nanomaterials: applications in Archaeology

Title: Micro-Raman spectroscopy of nanomaterials: applications in Archaeology
: Linda Charlotta Prinsloo
: University of Pretoria
: 2008
Type of Document
: PhD thesis
Link: http://up.ac.za/... (pdf)

“Nanomaterials” is a generic term used to describe nano-sized crystals and bulk homogenous materials with a structural disorder at the nanoscale. Ancient (and modern) ceramics and glasses derive some of their properties (eg. pliability and low sintering temperature) from the fact that their raw material namely natural clay is nanosized. Furthermore the pigments used to colour ceramics and glasses need to have particle sizes 500 nm for the object to appear homogenously coloured to the human eye. Raman spectroscopy intrinsically probes chemical bonds and is therefore one of the few techniques that has been proven useful to provide information at the nanoscale. It is an excellent tool to study ceramics and glasses as a Raman spectrum can be used to identify phases, analyse amorphous domains in the silicate network and identify pigments on a nano-scale. The characteristics of a glass, ceramic or ceramic glaze derived through its Raman spectrum can then be linked to the technology used to produce an artefact and in this way provide information about its relative age and provenance. Likewise, the identification of pigments and binders in San rock art might provide information about production techniques and assist in the developement of conservation procedures. In this thesis micro-Raman spectroscopy (with X-ray fluorescence, X-ray powder diffraction, electronmicroscopy and photoluminescence as supportive techniques) was utilised to study archaeological artefacts from the Mapungubwe Collection and San rock art. It was possible to re-date celadon shards excavated on Mapungubwe hill in 1934 to the Yuan or even later Ming dynasty in stead of its original classification as Song. A profile of the glass technology used to produce the Mapungubwe oblates, small trade beads from the “royal burials” on Mapungubwe hill was determined and quite a few unique characteristics of the beads may eventually help to establish their provenance. The possible influence of the presence of rock hyraces at rock art sites on the deterioration of rock art were investigated and during the study very rare polymorphs of CaCO3 (vaterite and monohydrocalcite) were discovered in rock hyrax urine. This study was extended to analyse a San rock art fragment and another first was the identification of animal fat on the fragment, but the exact origin of the fat has to be verified by similar experiments.

Table of contents (short version):

1. Introduction
2. Theoretical Background
3. Re-dating of Chinese celadon shards excavated on Mapungubwe Hill, a 13th century Iron Age site in South Africa, using Raman spectroscopy, XRF and XRD
4. A Raman spectroscopy study of the Mapungubwe oblates; glass trade beads excavated at an Iron Age archaeological site in South Africa
5. Rock hyraces: a cause of San rock art deterioration?
6. The first Raman spectroscopy study of San rock art in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park, South Africa
7. Conclusions

Guidelines for Digitizing Archival Materials (2004)

: Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Archival Materials for Electronic Access: Creation of Production Master Files – Raster Images

: Steven Puglia, Jeffrey Reed, and Erin Rhodes

: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)

: 2004

Pages: 87
: http://archives.gov/... (pdf, 1.59 Mb)

The NARA Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Archival Materials for Electronic Access define approaches for creating digital surrogates for facilitating access and reproduction; they are not considered appropriate for preservation reformatting to create surrogates that will replace original records. The Technical Guidelines presented here are based on the procedures used by the Digital Imaging Lab of NARA’s Special Media Preservation Laboratory for digitizing archival records and the creation of production master image files, and are a revision of the 1998 “NARA Guidelines for Digitizing Archival Materials for Electronic Access”, which describes the imaging approach used for NARA’s pilot Electronic Access Project. [...]

04 May 2010

Article: Conservation in Crisis (2006)

Title: Conservation in Crisis - Communicating the value of what we do
: A conversation between Anna Somers Cocks and Samuel Jones

: The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works

: 18

: 2010

: http://www.iiconservation.org/... (pdf, 1.3 Mb)

A discussion between Anna Somers Cocks, Founder and Editorial Director of The Art Newspaper and Samuel Jones of DEMOS and co-author of It's A Material World: Carting for the Public Realm, on the looming crisis in the field of conservation. For this event the IIC wanted to step back a bit and look at the field of heritage conservation in a far more generalised way than is usual and explore why the profession appears to be especially susceptible to cutbacks and budget reductions during times of economic downturn, such as the one that is being experienced worldwide at the moment. Some would say that the profession of conservation lacks sufficient influence due to its small size relative to other fields of endeavour. Others would say that we are insular and have not made sufficient effort to reach out to other stakeholders in heritage in order to inform them of the value of what we do. Still others would say that we have been unwilling to involve others in our decision making and hence they lack both the understanding and investment that leads to support. Or is it a combination of these and other reasons?

Article: Estimation of profiles of sherds of archaeological pottery (1997)

Title: Estimation of profiles of sherds of archaeological pottery
Author: R. Halíř, Jan Flusser
Reference: Czech Pattern Recognition Workshop '97. Proceedings, p. 126-130, T. Pajdla (ed.), Czech Pattern Recognition Workshop '97, (Milovy, CZ, 17-20 Feb 1997)
Type of file: ps (PostScript)
Link: http://www.utia.cas.cz/... (ps, 299 Kb)

In this paper, a method for a pro le estimation of an archaeological pottery based on their fragments (sherds) is presented. Since investigated pots were made on a potter’s wheel, the rotational symmetry of the original objects is assumed. In addition, sherds are oriented before the estimation. Using these constraints, an acquisition method based on a model of a sherd is proposed. The method is simple, stable and robust. The proposed method has been tested on both synthetic models and real archaeological sherds.

Thesis: textiles utilizados como soporte de pintura (2001)

Title: Investigación del comportamiento de algunos textiles utilizados como soporte de pintura como fuente de documentación a procesos de restauración
: María Teresa de Urkullu Polo

: Universidad Complutense de Madrid

: 2001
Type of Document: PhD
: http://eprints.ucm.es/... (pdf, 16.2 Mb)

Table of Contents (short version)

I. Las Fibras Textiles
II. El Material Textil como Soporte de Pintura
III. Estudio Cientifico de los Soportes de Tela
IV. Algumas Consideraciones sobre la Conservación de Textiles en Relación con la Materia Pictorica que Sustentan

PIXE 2004 Proceedings (2004)

Title: PIXE 2004 Proceedings
Reference: Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Particle-Induced X-ray Emission and its Analytical Applications, 4-8 June 2004, Portoroz, Slovenia
Link: http://pixe2004.ijs.si/

Topic: Archaeometry and Conservation

Chemical analyses and archaeometallurgy: problems and possibilities, Alessandra Giumlia-Mair

Analysis of silver coins by external PIXE, Venkatatari Vijayan, R.K. Choudhury, C.B. Patel

PIXE measurement of very thick multilayers, Guy Demortier

Analysis of Slovenian Historic Materials, Žiga Šmit, Miloš Budnar, Primož Pelicon, Jure Simčič, M. Kos, J. Istenič

An Archaeometric Application of External Beam PIXE: Colour-Reconstruction of an Ancient Egyptian Temple Relief, Corinna Frommold, Wolfram Bremser, I. Reiche, U. Reinholz, S. Seidlmayer, H.-P. Weise

SPM Analysis of Firing Technology on Ru Porcelain, Songlin Feng, Feng Xiangqian, Yong Lei, Lin Cheng, Xu Qing, Yin Sha, Milko Jakšić

PIXE Analysis of Iron Gall Inks - Analytical Problems, Mitja Uršič, Miloš Budnar, Jure Simčič, Primož Pelicon

Application of PIXE in the provenance study of ancient Chinese white porcelains, Feng Xiangqian, Songlin Feng, Yin Sha, Milko Jakšić

Comparison of PIXE, AAS, ICP-MS and NAA for determination of metals in paper, Vid Simon Šelih, M. Strlič, J. Kolar, Miloš Budnar, Jure Simčič, Radojko Jaćimović, Marjan Veber

Use of in-air PIXE method to study iron gall ink containing documents within InkCor project, Miloš Budnar, Jure Simčič, Mitja Uršič, Primož Pelicon, Z. Rupnik, J. Kolar, M. Strlič

Preliminary Applications of the Surrey External Beam Facility, Prashant Mistry, Roger Webb, Chris Jeynes, Karen Kirkby, Michael Merchant, Tony Clough, Geoffrey Grime

PIXE and SPM Analysis of Ancient Chinese Porcelain of Hutian Kiln, Lin Cheng, Songlin Feng, Fan Chang-Sheng, Zhang Wen-Jiang, Cheng Huang-Sheng, Milko Jakšić, Chai Zhi-Fang

Study on Porcelain of Jun Tai by SRXRF and PIXE, Yong Lei, Songlin Feng, Milko Jakšić, W.J. Zhao, Q.Y. Zhao

Differential PIXE measurements for the stratigraphic analysis of the painting “Madonna dei fusi” by Leonardo da Vinci, Novella Grassi, A. Migliori, Pier Andrea Mandó, H. Calvo del Castillo

Iridescent Art Nouveau Tiffany glass – simultaneous PIGE, PIXE, and RBS for non-destructive determination of the glass composition, Dubravka Jembrih-Simbuerger, C. Neelmeijer, M. Maeder, M. Schreiner

Application of PIXE and PIGE under variable incident ion beam angle to several fields of archaeometry, Georges Weber, L. Martinot, Ph. George, D. Strivay, H.P. Garnir

Article: PIXE–PIGE for ancient glass corrosion measurements (2002)

Title: Use of PIXE–PIGE under variable incident angle for ancient glass corrosion measurements
Authors: G. Weber, D. Strivay, L. Martinot and H. P. Garnir
Reference: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 189, 2002, pp. 350–357
Link: http://www.ulg.ac.be/... (pdf, 169 Kb)

Although glass is usually considered as a very stable archaeological material, it can undergo severe degradation. Soda-lime glass, the most common glass throughout ancient times, is particularly sensitive to this problem. The glass surface absorbs moisture from its environment and the contact with CO2 causes Na2O and NaOH to convert to Na2CO3, which is extremely hygroscopic. The subsequent unstable glass layer can be leached out and causes decomposition of the glass. The non-destructive PIGE–PIXE method of investigation allows detection of this phenomenon even if no visible effect appears. The variable incident angle method is able to discern the depth of the degradation. One aim of such studies is the possible dating or at least fake detecting of archaeological materials. Furthermore, even objects of large size can be investigated with the atmospheric PIGE–PIXE set-up. Some examples of measurements on ancient glass are given.

03 May 2010

Thesis: caractérisation des pigments et des mélanges de pigments (2004)

Title: Couleur de la matière picturale : caractérisation des pigments et des mélanges de pigments, effets induits par l'adjonction de liant et de charges
: Guillaume Dupuis

: Université Paris Sud - Paris XI
Year: 2004 Pages: 296
Type of Document
: PhD
Link: http://archives-ouvertes.fr/... (pdf, 7.8 Mb)

La spectroscopie de réflectance diffuse dans le domaine du visible est une technique paradoxalement rarement utilisée pour identifier les matériaux des couches picturales des oeuvres d'art. Quand elle est malgré tout mise en oeuvre, l'identification de pigments à partir de ce type de mesures repose toujours sur la comparaison avec une base de données spectrophotométriques de pigments de référence. Au sein du Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, la base de données est composée des spectres de réflectance de pigments purs, secs et en poudre. Une couche picturale est au contraire constituée de pigments parfois mélangés et dispersés dans un liant. Ces deux caractéristiques des couches picturales ont permis de distinguer deux axes de recherche pour le travail de thèse. I. La caractérisation des mélanges de pigments La modélisation de Kubelka-Munk s'est avérée pertinente pour la gamme usuelle des couleurs utilisées dans les oeuvres d'art, et ce même dans le cas extrême des mélanges dans lesquels un des composants est nettement minoritaire. Il est à présent possible, pour un mélange binaire, de déterminer les composants du mélange dans la majorité des cas par traitement numérique des mesures spectrophotométriques. Une fois la nature des composants déterminée, il est de plus systématiquement possible d'en retrouver les proportions relatives. Les résultats obtenus sur les échantillons modèles ont pu être adaptés au cas d'une oeuvre d'art : la Vierge d'Annonciation attribuée à Giovanni di Paolo. Dans ce tableau italien du XVe siècle, la couleur du visage est réalisée à partir d'un mélange de blanc de plomb et de vermillon a tempera. Les proportions relatives calculées de ces deux pigments sont en accord avec ce qui est observable au microscope optique sur des prélèvements et mesurable ensuite par traitement des images. II. L'influence du liant Des échantillons de couches picturales ont été réalisés par un artiste selon une recette traditionnelle. La concentration de pigments et le nombre de couches de matière picturales varient selon les échantillons. Ces derniers ont été étudiés parallèlement en spectrophotométrie, en diffractométrie des rayons X et en microfluorimétrie X. Les résultats obtenus par ces méthodes d'analyse concordent. La méthode de Rietveld d'affinement des diffractogrammes permet notamment d'aboutir à des valeurs de concentration de pigment dans le liant tout à fait en accord avec les résultats obtenus par la modélisation de la propagation de la lumière dans les milieux absorbants et diffusants utilisée pour interpréter les mesures spectrophotométriques. L'aboutissement de ce travail de thèse devrait permettre aux scientifiques de la conservation, aux historiens d'art et aux restaurateurs d'envisager la spectrophotométrie comme une technique d'analyse qualitative et quantitative, sans prélèvement, sans contact et réalisable in situ, qui fournit la nature et les proportions des différents constituants de la matière picturale.

Table of Contents (short version):
I. Couleur de la matière picturale

II. Instrumentation

III. Modélisation

IV. Mélange de poudres
V. Mélange de gouaches

VI. Adjonction de liant
Conclusion générale

Thesis: Reintegración cromática por medios fotomecánicos (2004)

Title: Sistema de reintegración cromática asistido por medios transferibles obtenidos por procedimientos fotomecánicos: aplicación en la restauración de pintura de caballete
Autor: José Manuel de la Roja de la Roja
University: Universidad Complutense de Madrid
: 2004

: 183

Type of Document
: PhD

: http://eprints.ucm.es/... (pdf, 15.8 Mb)

El sistema se basa en la reintegración cromática mediante tricomia, asistido por medios transferibles mediante presión. Consiste en la reproducción del color a reintegrar en las lagunas de una obra pictórica mediante transferencia y superposición de únicamente tres colores amarillo, magenta y cian, con sus correspondientes porcentajes, previamente identificados en unas tablas cromáticas de referencia la posibilidad de transferir en las lagunas de forma conjunta los múltiples signos que constituyen los denominados fondos tramados transferibles (FTT) y, además, conocer a priori la composición porcentual de los distintos colores a transferir, permite efectuar el proceso de reintegración con una mayor rapidez y seguridad de ejecución, así como la obtención de una mayor homogeneidad y definición en el trazado de los signos.

Table of Contents (short version):
I. Sistemas de Reintegración
II. Fundamentos del sistema de reintegración que se propone
III. Material necesario para el desarrollo del sistema. Optimización de la naturaleza de los componentes, dosificación y condiciones de trabajo
IV. Proceso de reintegración. Metodología de trabajo
V. Discusión

VI. Conclusiones

Article: Defects and moisture problems in buildings from historical city centres (2006)

Title: Defects and moisture problems in buildings from historical city centres: a case study in Portugal
Authors: Eduarda Luso, Paulo Lourenço, Manuela Almeida
Reference: Building and Environment 41:2, 2006, p. 223-234
Type of document: article draft
Download: http://hdl.handle.net/... (pdf, 1.4 Mb)

Conservation of ancient buildings is a major issue for modern societies, both from economical and cultural viewpoints. Information about the ancient built heritage is vital to plan adequate remedial measures. Using a historic centre in Portugal as a case study, this paper presents an extensive survey of building typology and materials, damage in the building envelope, indoor survey of damage, and measurements in indoor air temperature and relative humidity. Water-related problems can be confirmed as the single most important defect, which are combined with inadequate sun exposure, ventilation and heating, and excessive moisture indoor production. Extremely low temperatures, high humidity and presence of mould therefore compromise the indoor quality of life of the inhabitants, being urgent repair needed at many levels.

Article: ESPI for the investigation of wooden art objects (2010)

Title: Simple Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometer (ESPI) for the investigation of wooden art objects
Authors: Lukasz Lasyk, Michal Lukomski, Lukasz Bratasz
Reference: Proceedings of the COST Action IE0601 Annual Conference, Braga, Portugal, to be published by the Florence University Press in 2010
Link: http://heritagescience.pl/... (pdf, 1.78 Mb)

The development of a simple electronic speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI) for the non-invasive, non-contact detection and characterization of early-stage damage of painted surfaces, like fracturing and layer separation, is reported. The ESPI system developed relies on the analysis of sound-induced vibration of the investigated surfaces. A simplified optical system as well as special algorithms for the analysis of interferograms were developed for the purpose of gaining precise information on the different indicators of the destruction process: the characteristic resonance frequency for the damaged area, its size and the spatial distribution of the vibration amplitude. The technique was applied to trace damage in specimens of painted wood subjected to damaging cycles of dimensional change.

Article: Microclimatic variations for painted wood (2010)

Title: Allowable microclimatic variations for painted wood: direct tracing of damage development
Author: Roman Kozłowski, Łukasz Bratasz, Łukasz Lasyk, Michał Łukomski
Reference: Postprints of Symposium ‘Facing the Challenges of Panel Paintings Conservation: Trends, Treatments and Training’, eds. A.S. Chui, A. Phoenix, Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, to be published on line in mid- 2010.
Link: http://heritagescience.pl/... (pdf, 1.15 Mb)

Uncontrolled variations of ambient temperature and relative humidity (RH) are the principal hazard to the preservation of panel paintings which are frequently exposed to real-world dynamically changing environments. Materials that constitute panel paintings, such as hide glues, gesso, paints and varnishes respond to these variations by gaining moisture when humidity is high and losing moisture when the surrounding air is dry. The materials respond dimensionally to the sorption and desorption of moisture; they shrink as they lose moisture and swell when they gain moisture. A notable effect is that panel materials each respond differently to the loss and gain of moisture, which induces high stress in the different layers of painting leading to damage if the strength of a given material is exceeded.