04 February 2010

Studies of artists' organic pigments (2003)

Title: Laser desorption mass spectrometric studies of artists' organic pigments
Author: Nicolas Wyplosz
University: University of Amsterdam
Year: 2003
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://www.amolf.nl/... (pdf)
New link: http://dare.uva.nl/... (pdf)

From the Introduction:
The technical investigation of organic pigments in easel paintings is not without problems. Pigments have complex chemical compositions; details of their manufacturing processes are generally unknown and dramatic transformations of the colouring properties are observed with the passing of time. Characterisation of the chemical composition is greatly complicated by the particularly small size and complex arrangement of the samples available for analysis. Microscopic samples are preferably studied as paint cross-sections, but the finest methods of molecular analysis available today (chromatography and mass spectrometry) are not very compatible with this sampling method. In practice, investigation of organic pigments in cross-sections remains often inconclusive by the lack of a suitable method of analysis. This dissertation explores a new approach to the analysis of organic pigments found in easel paintings, using laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS). LDMS makes it possible to investigate the surface of paint cross-section with a spatial-resolution down to 10 mm utilising the analytical method of mass spectrometry.

Table of Contents:

Chapter 1 : Introduction
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Structure of an easel painting
1.3. Traditional and modern organic pigments
1.4. Categories of pigments under investigation
1.5. Deterioration of organic pigments
1.6. Investigation of organic colouring materials in conservation science
1.7. LDMS of organic colouring materials, a rationale
1.8. Thesis outline
1.9. Main results and implications for painting studies

Chapter 2: Principles and instrumentation of LDMS
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry for Surface Analyses
2.3. Principles of LDMS
2.4. Instrumentation for the analysis of paint cross-section
2.5. Conclusion

Chapter 3: An experimental strategy for LDMS of paint materials

3.1. Introduction
3.2. Sample and sample mounting
3.3. Laser-sample interaction
3.4. Shot-to-shot variations
3.5. TOF-MS versus ITMS: pressure and time-scale
3.6. Ion collection in the ITMS analyser: LMCO
3.7. CID experiments with the ITMS analyser
3.8. Conclusion

Chapter 4: LDMS of flavonoids
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Flavonoid pigments
4.3. Experimental
4.4. Characterization of flavonoid aglycones with LDMS
4.5. Multiple-stage LDI–ITMS
4.6. Characterisation of flavonoid-O-glycosides
4.7. Analysis of complex samples
4.8. Analysis fibres dyed with flavonoids
4.9. Investigation of cross-sectioned samples
4.10. Conclusion

Chapter 5: LDMS of anthraquinones
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Anthraquinone pigments
5.4. LDI and MALDI of Alizarin
5.5. Alizarin lake in oil paint
5.6. Analysis of natural dyed fibres
5.7. Conclusion

Chapter 6: LDMS of indigoids
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Experimental
6.3. Analysis of synthetic indigo
6.4. Analysis of natural indigos
6.5. LDMS of indigo at the surface of dyed fibres
6.6. LDMS of indigo in oil paint
6.7. Spatially- resolved LDMS of cross-sections
6.8. Conclusion

Chapter 7: LDMS of modern synthetic pigments
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Samples
7.3. Experimental conditions
7.4. Analysis of reference samples
7.5. Acrylic polymer emulsions and oil paints
7.6. Spatially- resolved LDMS analysis of cross-sectioned paint samples
7.7. Conclusions

Chapter 8: Surface preparation of paint cross-sections
8.1. Introduction
8.2. FTIR-imaging and LD-ITMS
8.3. Evidence of smearing
8.4. A new sample preparation
8.5. Analyses after polishing
8.6. Conclusion
8.7. Acknowledgements


Paint dosimeters as tools to monitor the museum environment (2001)

Title: Molecular changes in egg tempera paint dosimeters as tools to monitor the museum environment
Author: Oscar F. van den Brink
University: University of Amsterdam
Year: 2001
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://www.amolf.nl/... (pdf, 7.06 Mb)

Table of Contents (short version):

1. Introduction
2. Determination of the degree of chemical change in museum exposed test paintings by mass spectrometry and discriminant analysis
3. DTMS and DA of nine dosimetric test systems
4. Dosimetry of the environment in various museums: Interpretation of the results of the field studies
5. Cholesterol oxidation products in light-aged egg tempera
6. MALDI-FTMS analysis of oxigenated triglycerides and phosphatidylcholines in egg tempera dosimeters
7. Electrospray ionisation FT-ICR-MS(MS) of light-aged egg glycerolipids
8. Recommendations for further work on paint-based dosimetry and outlook

Documentation of Museum Collections (2010)

Title: Documentation of Museum Collections. Why? How? Practical Guide
Author: Anne Ambourouè Avaro, with the contribution of Gaël de Guichen and Alain Godonou
Publisher: ICCROM
Year: 2010
Website: http://www.iccrom.org/...
Available in: English (pdf, 347 Kb), Français (pdf, 360 Kb), Español (pdf, 414 Kb)

UNESCO and ICCROM, together with other partners, have prepared a draft practical guide for basic documentation of collections in small museums and would like your help in improving it.
If you work for a museum which has between 5,000 and 8,000 objects and your responsibilities include the inventory and documentation of collections, we welcome your feedback. (for the Evaluation questionnaire, please check the website)

Table of Contents (short version):

1- Why document?
2- How to set up a basic manual documentation system from scratch
3- How to reactivate an abandoned or incomplete manual documentation system
4- How to check the inventory
5- How to computerize the system
6- How to maintain the documentation system

03 February 2010

Molecular studies of triterpenoid varnishes (1999)

Title: Molecular studies of fresh and aged triterpenoid varnishes
Author: Gisela A. van der Doelen
University: University of Amsterdam
Year: 1999
Type of document: PhD thesis
Download: http://www.amolf.nl/... (pdf)

From the Summary:
The natural triterpenoid resins, dammar and mastic, are often used as painting varnishes. Degradation of these natural varnishes results in yellow and brittle films, which obscure the painted images underneath. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the molecular changes that occur in triterpenoid varnishes during ageing on paintings. For this purpose, the chemical composition of both fresh and aged varnishes from paintings was investigated. In addition, it was investigated whether triterpenoid varnishes, which were aged according to several artificial light ageing methods, have similar chemical compositions as varnishes aged on paintings. [...]

Table of contents (short version):

1. Triterpenoid varnishes: the ageing process
2. Triterpenoid compounds in fresh dammar and mastic resin
2a. Appendix to Chapter 2
3. Aged triterpenoid varnishes from paintings
4. Artificially light aged varnishes
5. Artificial ageing of varnish triterpenoids in solution
6. Mass spectrometric analysis of triterpenoids in dammar and mastic under EI and APCI conditions
Atlas of mass spectra of triterpenoid compounds in varnishes

02 February 2010

Characterization and identification of printed objects (2008)

Title: Characterization and identification of printed objects
Author: Lénia Janete Oliveira Fernandes
University: New University of Lisbon
Year: 2008
Type of document: Master thesis
Download: http://dspace.fct.unl.pt/... (pdf, 4.91 Mb)

A study about the physical appearance of pre-photographic, photomechanical, photographic and digital positive reflective prints was made, relating the obtained images with the history, materials and technology used to create them. The studied samples are from the Image Permanence Institute (IPI) study collection. The digital images were obtained using a digital SLR on a copystand and a compound light microscope, with different lighting angles (0º, 45º and 90º) and magnifications from overall views on the copystand down to a 20x objective lens on the microscope. Most of these images were originally created by IPI for www.digitalsamplebook.org, a web tool for teaching print identification, and will be used on the www.graphicsatlas.org website, along with textual information on identification, technology and history information about these reproduction processes.

Table of contents:

Characterization and Identification of Printed Objects
Pre-photographic processes
Photomechanical processes
Photographic processes
Digital Photography
Appendix I – Experimental
Appendix II – Print technology illustrations
Appendix III – Other images
Appendix IV - Tables