14 June 2011

Biocolonization of Stone (2011)

Title: Biocolonization of Stone: Control and Preventive Methods: Proceedings from the MCI Workshop Series
Editors: Asuncion Elena Charola, Christopher McNamara, and Robert J. Koestler
Publisher: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press
Year: 2011
Pages: 116
Format: PDF (14.95 Mb)

The Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute Workshop on Biocolonization of Stone was the second workshop in a series and was dedicated to research on removal and control of biocolonization in stone objects. Twelve presentations were made, and the workshop ended with a roundtable discussion open to the 71 attendees. The goal was to provide a discussion forum for biologists, material scientists, and conservators interested in stone biodeterioration. Seven papers were presented, ranging from microbiological laboratory studies to combination of on-site testing and laboratory evaluation for World Heritage Sites such as Angkor Wat, to a literature overview. Five case studies were also presented, covering control of biodeterioration at Veterans Affairs cemeteries, experience gathered from the installation of zinc strips at the Stanford Mausoleum in San Francisco, the red staining found on the marble of the Memorial Amphitheater at Arlington National Cemetery, problems posed by deer stones in Mongolia, and the site test installed at San Ignacio Miní Jesuit mission in Misiones, Argentina. The roundtable and discussions drew attention to the importance of exploring new methods to prevent microbial colonization of stone. Finally, in a closed session, suggestions were offered for developing criteria to evaluate microbial growth and determine when treatment is necessary. It was recommended that a database be prepared on stone biocolonization and its control.

Table of contents:

Microbiological Studies on Stone Deterioration and Development of Conservation Measures at Angkor Wat
Thomas Warscheid and Hans Leisen

Microbial Community Diversity and the Complexity of Preserving Cultural Heritage
M. Carmen Portillo and Juan M. Gonzalez

Characterization of Bacterial Colonization of Stone at global and Local Scales
Christopher McNamara, Nick R. Konkol, Brandon P. Ross, and Ralph Mitchell

Methods to Prevent Biocolonization and Recolonization: An Overview of Current Research for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage
Ornella Salvadori and A. Elena Charola

New Environmentally Friendly Approaches against Biodeterioration of Outdoor Cultural Heritage
Francesca Cappitelli, Federica Villa, and Claudia Sorlini

Bioremediation of Algal Contamination on Stone
Eric May, Dania Zamarreño, Sarah Hotchkiss, Julian Mitchell, and Robert Inkpen

Recolonization of Marble Sculptures in a garden Environment
José Delgado Rodrigues, Marta Vale Anjos, and A. Elena Charola

Case Study: Red Staining on Marble
Claire Gervais, Carol Grissom, Christopher McNamara, Nick R. Konkol, and Ralph Mitchell

Case Study: Biocontrol Testing at the San Ignacio Miní Jesuit-guaraní Mission, Misiones, Argentina
Marcelo L. Magadán, Gisela M. A. Korth, Marcela L. Cedrola, and José L. Pozzobon

Case Study: Comparative Study of Commercially Available Cleaners for Use on Marble Veterans Affairs Headstones
Jason Church, Mary Striegel, Christopher McNamara, Kristen Bearce Lee, and Ralph Mitchell

Case Study: Deer Stones of Mongolia after Three Millennia
Paula T. DePriest and Harriet F. Beaubien

Case Study: Field Observations on the Effectiveness of Zinc Strips to Control Biocolonization of Stone
David P. Wessel

Discussions, Conclusions, and Recommendations
A. Elena Charola, Christopher McNamara, and Robert J. Koestler